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Τεύχος 82, Μάρτιος 2002 No. of pages: 122
Κύριο Θέμα: Αντίσταση με στιλ. Ρούχα, κουλτούρα και ιδεολογικές αντιθέσεις στην κλασική Αθήνα Ashley Clements

Αρχαία ελληνικά υποδήματα Antonio Corso

Το αθλητικό γυμνό στους Έλληνες Federico Rausa

Η σιωπή της Αρήτης και η συμβολική του ρούχου στην Οδύσσεια Κώστας Ζερβός

Το γυμνό και το ντυμένο. Θρησκευτικές εκφράσεις στο Αιγαίο της 2ης χιλιετίας π.Χ. Χρήστος Μπουλώτης

Γυμνοί κούροι-Nτυμένοι άνδρες. Όψεις της ανδρικής γυμνότητας και τυπολογία των ρόλων του φύλου στην προκλασική και κλασική τέχνη Νίκος Ξένιος

Η διακόσμηση των υφασμάτων στον Όμηρo και η σχέση της με συναφείς τεχνικές Βαγγέλης Πανταζής

Η ένδυση στην αρχαιότητα Ιωάννης Πετρόπουλος

Η γυναικεία ενδυμασία στην ανακτορική Κρήτη Λιάνα Δ. Στεφανή

Άλλα θέματα: Η Ίμβρος στην πρώιμη εποχή του Χαλκού (β΄ μέρος) Ηλίας Ανδρέου, Ιωάννα Ανδρέου

Θολωτοί τάφοι στην επικράτεια του βασιλείου του Nέστορος Θάνος Παπαθανασόπουλος

Ενημερωτικές στήλες και απόψεις: Aρχαιομετρικά Nέα Γιάννης Μπασιάκος

Aρχαιολογικά Nέα: ειδήσεις, εκθέσεις, συνέδρια, διαλέξεις, επιστολές, βιβλία Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα (επιμ.)

Θησαυροί από το Iράν, Χετταίοι και ο μύθος της Τροίας στη Βόννη Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

Πληροφορική: COMPASS, οι συλλογές του Βρετανικού Μουσείου στο Διαδίκτυο Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

English summaries: Dress in antiquity Ioannis Petropoulos

Odysseus, landing naked on the island of the Phaeacians (Corfu), tells us how the function of clothing is to protect the body by covering it. The clothing bestowed on Odysseus either by goddesses or mortal women makes him the object of female desire. Cloaks and mantles become dominant features in the sculptures of antiquity. Around 720 BC it became common practice for men to be portrayed naked while women were usually shown dressed. Nudity, both in life and in art was part of the homoerotic culture of the time and closely connected with the gymnasiums and symposiums and spread during the 7th or 8th century BC because of the Olympic Games.

The Nude and the Dressed: Religious Expressions in the Aegean of the 2nd Millennium B.C. Christos Boulotis

The nude and the dressed, as antithetical and at the same time supplementary practices, compose one of the many pairs of counterpoint categories which condition and signify the human thought and behavior, therefore the culture in its evolutionary perspective. In the framework of the Aegean civilizations of the 2nd millennium BC, especially in the Minoan but also in the Cycladic and Mycenean civilizations of the Late Bronze Age, the dialogue between nude and dressed, in practical as well as in symbolic level, is exclusively known to us through the various manifestations of art. Particularly interesting is the study of the religious expressions of the subject, on which we are mainly focused in this article. Issues primarily discussed are the complete nudity of humans as well as the meaning of the first dressing of boys -in the framework of the rites de passage — , the rare complete nudity of the deities and also the symbolic stressing of the penis and the female breasts through dressing choices. Reference is also made to the attire of the priesthood and the sacred clothes of deities; the dedication of the latter seems to function as the ritual nucleus of important feasts, many of which will also survive in the historic years.

The Female Attire in the Palatial Crete Liana Stefani

The female attire of Crete is one of the most characteristic creations of the Minoan civilization. The study of the iconographic data leads to the identification of the stages of development the attire went through from the Pre-palatial to the Neo-palatial period. During the Old Palace period the basic components of the attire skirt, vest, girdle and hat-are combined in various ways, thus forming distinct ensembles. However, the most typical item of the female attire in this era is the hat, which appears in seven different types. The study for grouping the articles of clothing, according to the evidence the clay idols from the peak-sanctuaries offer, leads to the identification of local dress particularities and to the distinction between central and regional sanctuaries on the basis of the prevailing dressing combinations. A competition develops among women of various social groups that aims to the improvement of their social status in the under creation palatial system. The focal point of a woman's appearance during the Neo-palatial period is shifted from the hat to the skirt, while the most radical change is undoubtedly the laying bare of the breasts. This phenomenon can be interpreted through the women's necessity to upgrade their role in the fully developed palatial system. In this case the bare breasts function as symbols of fertility in its metaphysical dimension. In addition, it has been established that the luxurious garments of the Neo-palatial era are worn by women of the elite, who, according to the existing evidence, are dressed in them for important ceremonial events.  

Aretes Silence and the Symbolism of Garment in Odyssey. A Psychodynamic Reconstruction Kostas Zervos

The movements of Odysseus in the epic poem, rhapsodies 5, 6, 7 and 19, are observed and analyzed on the basis of certain fundamental psychoanalytic concepts. According to the author of the article, what is sought in the development of Odyssey is the description of the psychic process, necessary for the evolution of a man's psyche. The basic characters of the poem are regarded not as individuals but as personifications of the various psychic junctures which must be experienced by a man for the formation of his identity. Odysseus' course can be considered a route from a basically Narcissistic to an Oedipodean position. Prerequisite of this course is the existence, at the beginning, of a second person, that of the mother, and later of a third one. that of the father. Calypso, Nausica, Arete, Penelope are considered as the females -or the multiple personality of only one woman- who function first as a screen on which Odysseus' psychological contents and needs are projected, and later as the intermediate and facilitating grades for his further advancement. The garment is considered as a symbol of the female desire in the particular phases that are described.

Textile Decoration in the Homeric Poems Vangelis Pantazis

The numerous controversial comments and the information about books referring to the unknown "Homeric glosses» offer irrefutable evidence that the Greeks of the historic period were ignorant of the meaning of many Homeric words. Therefore, one has to search again for the lost orig¬inal meaning of the words as they appear in their context and at the same time to fall back on the very items and practices described in the epos. Following up the course of the textile decoration, through the description in the epos, and its impact on vase-painting and sculpture is doubly elucidating: on the one hand it reveals the transformation of the decorative motifs in their transition from vases to textiles and vice versa; and on the other it casts light on the lost meaning of some relevant Homeric terms. For instance, the Homeric adjectives «τερμιόεις», «δινωτός» and «σιγαλόεις» can probably be interpreted through the techniques of textile decoration as they have affected the embellishment of solid objects. Thus, the term «τερμιόεις" seems to signify whatever has a neatly done selvage, «δινωτός» applies to whatever is decorated with the meander motif, while «σιγαλόεις» means the fully-embroidered or dotted.

The Athletic Nude in Ancient Greece Federico Rausa

For the collective intellectuality of ancient Greece nudity represents the characteristic feature of the image of athlete, as it has been illustrated through the perfection and harmony of the bodies which have been praised by the poets and modeled in bronze and marble by the sculptors. Nevertheless, the issue of the athletic nude presents a certain complexity.However, the ancient sources, from the Homeric epos onwards, testify to the use of a kind of protective device for the genitals, a sort of girdle, as it is pictured on Attic black-figured vases. Thucidides (1.6.5) supplies valuable information on this subject, attributing the introduction of nudity in the games to the environment of Sparta, and especially to Orsippos, a runner from Megara. The absolute nudity in the games is a habit that prevails later and coexists with the general culture of the Gymnasium, in which nudity is considered as ideal and becomes a habitus to the youths, thus contributing to the creation of the image of the καλός καγαθός (= comely and virtuous) citizen.

Resistance with Style: Clothes, Culture and Counter-Ideology in Classical Athens Ashley Clements

Apart from the odd moment of naturist bliss, most of us, most of the time, wear clothes. Yet we rarely pause to consider the social conventions and cultural values that influence us -and that we later silently advertise -as we go about the daily business of choosing appropriate things to wear. In late fifth-century democratic Athens this intersection of clothing and ideology was frequently explored by artists, orators and playwriters. In the public rhetoric of ancient Athens, late fifth-century styles of dress reproduced a complex scheme of cultural categories and the relations between them, providing a unique repertoire of symbols, through which democratic society represented itself to itself. This article focuses on the converse aspect of the ideological significance of clothing in late fifth-century Athens, initially glimpsed through the comic filter of Aristophanes: the use of dress by those critical of the values of democratic society to articulate profoundly anti-democratic sentiments. It examines the evidence for the existence of the so-called Laconizers -young aristocrats who signaled their discontent with Athenian democracy by copying the austerity of Spartan dress codes- in Athens during the late fifth century. Contrary to the conventional view which would have such individuals as a characteristic feature of the fifth-century political landscape, close reading of Aristophanes in fact reveals a rich diversity of subversive clothing practices hitherto obscured by the deceptively simple rubric of «Laconism», i.e. the accusation of harbouring political sympathies with Sparta. Most striking of all is the appropriation of exotic foreign styles of dress by an aristocratic minority, eager to re-articulate the status of the aristocrat. Close examination of this trend, as it is reflected in Athenian art, seeks to highlight just how effective a political tool clothing could be during the last decades of the fifth century.  

Ancient Greek Footwear Antonio Corso

The article focuses on the different types of footwear worn by ancient Greeks. The ancient Greek names of sandals, shoes, boots and slippers are given with relevant citations from passages of ancient writers. The names of footwear are considered according to five small groups, devoted to those known from the early archaic ripe and late archaic, the classical, the Hellenistic and the Roman period, respectively. Then, visual evidence on ancient sandals, shoes and boots is considered and representations in vase-painting, reliefs and statues are examined. Furthermore, the influence of the general artistic trends throughout antiquity -especially that of the Near-East styles on the changing types of Greek footwear, and sandals in particular - is considered, while the most reliable conclusion on the correspondence between the ancient names and the important types known from visual evidence is presented. Finally, an attempt is made to justify the habit of dressing of certain figures of the Greek myths or of the everyday life - depicted in visual arts- with specific types of footwear.

Nude Kouros – Dressed Man: Aspects of the Masculine Nudity and the Typology of the Role of Sex in the Preclassical and Classical Art Nikos Xenios

In studying thoroughly the way the ancient Greeks perceived masculine nudity, one has to take under consideration the fact that the civilization of the Classical period was a man-centered culture. The representation of the nude male body was considered to be a symbol of masculinity and pride, directly connected with aesthetic and moral values. On the one hand, these values consisted of the ideal proportions in the representation of the muscular system in sculpture, while they referred to the overall apearance in vase painting. These figurative ideals that have been revived in our modern world through the German romanticism have created a model for the mature male body or the body of the kouros, the male youth. The praised plastic properties of the marble can perfectly convey the plasticity of the mascular system. On the other hand, nudity as a value greatly affected the ideal of perseverance, the virtue of the hoplite and as a result the cultural physiognomy of the adult, the mature citizen.

The Imvros Island in the Early Bronze Age Elias Andreou, Ioanna Andreou

Several prehistoric settlements have been located on the rough and harbourless northeastern coast of Imvros island, four of which are presented in this article. They lay on low hills, next to the junction of streams and the sea. The scheme of organization and the form of fortification of these settlements, as well as the large number of scatered surface sherds and flintstone tools have led to a dual conclusion: first, these settlements have been inhabited since the end of the Neolithic period; and second, their prime coincides with the Early Bronze Age, an era characterized by movements of population and activities relevant to the very early phase of shipping and bronze trading. The Imvros settlements belong to the broader group of important centres of the northeastern Aegean, which continue to surprise us at their extention, quality of organization and the high cultural standards of their finds.

Chamber Tombs in the Kingdom of Nestor Thanos Papathanassopoulos

The Mycenaean chamber tombs, these important technical achievements, the oldest monumental burial constructions in Europe, are more numerous in Messenia than in any other region in Greece, even more numerous than in Argolis, where Mycenae, the center of the most important and powerful Mycenaean state, are situated. Located in the domain of the Mycenaean kingdom of mythical Nestor, these wondrous burial structures, dating from the mid-sixteenth to the twelfth century BC, urgently demand to be restored, protected and elevated in order to become accessible to whomever is interested in them, scholar or visitor. The Direction of Reconstruction of Ancient Monuments of the Greek Ministry of Culture, in collaboration with the Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities responsible for the area, have worked out a project for the restoration and elevation of the chamber tombs of Messenia, which has been submitted to be financed from the Third Community Support Framework.

Εκπαιδευτικές σελίδες: Μυθικά τέρατα των παραμυθιών: Η Μέδουσα – ένας τέρας που σε πάγωνε… Μαρίζα Ντεκάστρο

Τεύχος 83, Ιούνιος 2002 No. of pages: 122
Κύριο Θέμα: Αποκαλύπτοντας τα ενδύματα: η ένδυση ως θεολογία Mary Lee Coulson

Γυναικείες κομμώσεις και κεφαλόδεσμοι στο Bυζάντιο Μελίτα Εμμανουήλ

Ένα πλούσιο ενδυματολογικό σύνολο από τον Mυστρά Παρή Καλαμαρά

Οι ιδεολογικές διαστάσεις του περιοριστικού χαρακτήρα της γυναικείας ενδυμασίας Κώστας Μαντάς

Ενδυματολογικές συνήθειες στην ιπποτοκρατούμενη Ρόδο (1309-1522) Ιωάννα Μπίθα

Η ένδυση στο Βυζάντιο Ιωάννης Πετρόπουλος

Ένας παιδικός χιτώνας στην κοπτική συλλογή του Mουσείου Μπενάκη Σοφία Τσουρινάκη

Άλλα θέματα: Όψεις της ετερότητας στο Βυζάντιο: η παρουσία των μαύρων Αφέντρα Μουτζάλη

Σκέψεις επάνω σε παραστάσεις αττικών αγγείων Veronique Lezine-Βελισσαροπούλου

Καβάλα: επανάχρηση ή το bric-a-brac των μνημείων Αρίστη Παπαδοπούλου

Οι Έλληνες στην Aνατολή Zainul Wahab

Γλυπτό που βρέθηκε στην Ινδία και πιθανώς παριστάνει τον Αριστοτέλη.

Ανίχνευση και ταυτοποίηση φυσικών βαφών υφασμάτων Σταύρος Πρωτοπαπάς, Κυριακή Λέντζη και άλλοι

Η πανίδα και η χλωρίδα στην προϊστορική Κύπρο Αναστασία Τσαλίκη

Ο κερδώος χαρακτήρας του σύγχρονου αθλητισμού Κωνσταντίνα Γογγάκη

Μουσείο: Εθνική Πινακοθήκη-Μουσείο Αλεξάνδρου Σούτζου: αναδιαμόρφωση εκθεσιακών χώρων και επανέκθεση της μόνιμης συλλογής Παναγιώτης Τζώνος

Ενημερωτικές στήλες και απόψεις: Aρχαιομετρικά Nέα Γιάννης Μπασιάκος

Aρχαιολογικά Nέα: ειδήσεις, εκθέσεις, συνέδρια, διαλέξεις, βιβλία Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα (επιμ.)

Οφθαλμιατρείο Aθηνών Μάρω Καρδαμίτση-Αδάμη, Αριστέα Παπανικολάου-Kρίστενσεν

Σπήλιος Άντισσας: το μαντείο του Ορφέα στη Λέσβο Χ.Β. Χαρίσης, Α.Β. Χαρίσης, Β.Α. Χαρίσης

Πληροφορική: Αρχαιολογικές βιβλιογραφίες στο Διαδίκτυο Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

English summaries: Dress in Byzantium Ioannis Petropoulos

Ιn Byzantium, women’s headdresses eventually came to cover the entire face, even the empress’s face was covered. The art of weaving seems to have been a conservative one, seeing that a Coptic child’s mantle dating from the 8th or 9th century AD, appears to have been woven on a type of loom used in Egypt since the 16th century BC. The body of an elegant lady dressed in a western fashion Renaissance outfit was found buried at the church of Aghia Sophia in Mystras. However, portraits of the donors in murals of 14th to 16th century churches of Rhodes show that the Greek, middle-class inhabitants of the island of Rhodos showed their preference for Byzantine fashions. As for the picture of the Virgin Mary Hodighitria in the church of Berbaka in Argolida, the child’s thin, short shirt carries theological symbolism belonging to the Orthodox Church.

A Sumptuous Dressing Ensemble from Mystras Pari Kalamara

Professor Nikolaos Drandakis excavated in 1955 a series of subterranean, built and vaulted, in their majority, tombs under the west and south stoa of Hagia Sophia in Mystras. which yielded, among other finds, remnants of a dressing ensemble. A woman's attire of the first half of the fifteenth century is the best preserved item of this ensemble. It consists of two silk, frilled dresses, worn the one above the other, a ribbon for supporting and decorating the hair, and a pair of leather shoes, from which only the soles have been preserved. It belongs to a young woman, who, judging from the characteristics of her clothing -the ample use of silk, frilled fabrics and the overlying dresses -, should be a member of Mystras' aristocracy. The remnants of a gentleman's outfit also supply a lot of information about the dressing habits of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth century in the Despotate. This item consists of a long silk, frilled dress, buttoned along its front, and, quite probably, of a similarly silk kerchief, a common accessory of an aristocrat's wardrobe. The rest pieces of the dressing ensemble are in a too fragmentary condition to enrich our knowledge of the clothing of the period. However, distinct among them is a woolen material, which might have been used as leggings, and some silk, decorative bands with an embroidered or woven embellishment, gilt beads or metallic yarns, which could be components of a diadem or a head-cover. The dressing ensemble from Mystras attests the perseverance of the ruling class of Byzantium in specific clothing models, valued through time; it also substantiates the commercial relations of the Despotate of Moreas with the west, mediaeval Europe and the broader cultural osmosis between East and West in sectors of everyday life, such as the garment, during the Palaeologan era (thirteenth-fifteenth cent.).  

A Woman’s Hair-Style and Headdress in Byzantium Melita Emmanouil

The issue of a woman's hair-style and headdress in Byzantium, although is especially interesting, has not been thoroughly studied as yet. Relevant information is supplied by certain epigrams of the Anlhoiogia Palatine, the sermons of the Church Fathers, texts of educational character and also by the romances of the Palae-ologan age. Through these sources we establish that women in the Byzantine age were especially concerned with their appearance and utilized all available means to beautify their looks. Thus, the most common hair-style was the braids, the bun and the ringlets. arranged like today's hair-do, while the use of wig a contributed to the rich volume of hair. A net or a bonnet, holding the hair tightly, was the ordinary headdress that was usually complemented by the maphon-on, an ample piece of cloth covering the head and falling on the shoulders. Quite often, however, a long cloth enfolded the hair, like a turban, instead of the maphorion. The hagiological texts refer only to the life and martyrdom of holy women and not to their appearance. In Byzantine art women with an uncovered head are depicted only in few occasions and represent characteristic iconographical types, such as the various personifications or Eve in scenes of the Old Testament. In the Christological or the Mariological cycles only the young girls or the maidservants are represented with the head uncovered. As a rule the female figures in Byzantine art wears the maphorion, although there are many representations of female donors whose headdress consists of a simple, short white cloth that reaches the shoulders. The depiction of the mid-wife in the Nativity of Christ is of special interest: this figure was particularly respected in Byzantine society, therefore the artists drew attention to her participation in the scene through her headdress, which, owing to its luxurious decoration or to its originality of form, is quite often very impressive. On the other hand, while the sources are sparing as regards the real appearance of the ladies of aristocracy, their representation in art is characterized by striking luxury and stresses the individuality of the figure depicted. A kind of local fashion seems to appear after the Fourth Crusade (thirteenth cent.), which survives until today in the costumes of folk art.  

The Ideological Dimensions of the Confined Character of a Woman’s Attire Kostas Mantas

This article deals with the phenomenon of covering a woman's head in the Mediterranean world throughout the ages, especially in ancient Greece and Byzantium. From the study of the literary and epigraphical sources arises that both social practice and religion have dictated the covering of a woman's head and body as well as the minimalization of luxury in a woman's attire. This confinement was exercised in the framework of social control in societies ruled by the counterpoint notions of "honor" and "dishonor", such as the Mediterranean societies, at least until recently.

A Child’s Tunic in the Coptic Collection of the Benaki Museum Sophia Tsourinaki

This loom-shaped child's tunic was woven to cross shape in one piece - body and sleeves -, with the hood whip-stitched to the body. The weaving begun with the right sleeve, then the two sections of the warp were added. It is woolen, tapestry woven throughout. with ornaments of purple wool and undyed linen. The garment was folded after the course of weaving ana sewn. Reinforced selvedges, finishing cords, fringes and weft twining remain intact. The decoration of the tunic consists of clavi and medallions, and, in regard to the designs, the stylized birds, fishes and circles are motives of earlier origin. As related material indicates, it is assumed that the tunic was woven on a two-beam vertical loom, which had a shed rod, a heddle rod, but not a reed. The weaver was facing the right side of the textile. The quality of the material and the careful technical execution prove the high standards of weaving arc textile art in Egypt, the country of provenance of the tunic, during the eighth and ninth centuries AD, the period from which this garment is dated.

Revealing Garments: Clothing as Theology Mary Lee Coulson

In the years following Iconoclasm, changes may be observed in both the pose and the costume of the Christ-Child in depictions of the Virgin Hodegetria. Exami¬nation of an example of the clothing worn by the infant Christ in a fresco representation of the Hodegetria, in the church of Merbakas in Argolis. reveals several deviations from the pre-lconoclast iconographic type, in¬cluding one detail which may be related to the Dominican associations of the church.

Dressing Habits in the Island of Rhodes During the Rule of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem loanna Bitha

Rhodes, the largest island of the Dodecanese, was not important only during antiquity, but continued to play a crucial historical role also in the Byzantine age. In the early fourteenth century it was occupied by the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, who sought a new base of operations in order to regain the Holy Land from the Ottomans. The settlement of the knights and many merchants from the West changed the physiognomy of the island. A new local aristocracy emerged, active mainly in the towns, which developed a Franco-Greek taste. This new situation naturally affected the life and culture of the island. Its influence can also be established in the dressing habits of the inhabitants, which are documented in religious wall-paintings and especially in representations of donors. The major dressing characteristics on Rhodes are the following two: The preference, with only a few exceptions, of the Greeks for the Byzantine attire; and the evolution and variety of this costume, comparable, however, to that of the Venetian-ruled Crete or of the Frankish-ruled Cyprus, although the western influence is sometimes more obvious on the costumes of these islands. Needless to say, that the remarks mainly concern the attire of the nobility and not that of the everyday, hard-working, people, whose type of dress remains unchanged, dictated by age-long functional needs. A basic feature of the medieval costume is a series of dresses, worn the one above the other, with wisely cut openings, through which, not only the variety, quality and decoration of the garments could be directly observed, but also the social and economic status of their bearer could be evaluated. On the basis of the aforementioned donors' representations four garments can be established as standards: the undershirt and the cloak for women, the undershirt and a variety of coats for men.  

Detection and Identification of Natural Textile Dyes Stavros Protopapas - Kyriaki Lentzi - Elena Pouli - Elpida Christoforidou

An effort is made in this article for the detection and identification of historic textile dyes that were used in the Helladic region. Dyes have already been used before the means covering basic human needs were invented, and the art of spinning and weaving were created. The first yarns appear around 9,000 BC, while the invention of the loom seems to date from around 7,000 BC. Basic dyeing procedures were unknown in western and northern Europe, as opposed to central and south Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus area, Egypt, Asia Minor and Greece, where basic dyeing techniques were already used in early years. The prehistoric inhabitants of the Aegean, especially the Minoans, were capable of dyeing various natural materials, particularly the wool. Wall-paintings on the island of Crete, the "crocus collector" in the Akrotiri on Thera, the "Mycenaean" lady in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, illustrate the favorite costumes and dyes of the period, among which the red, yellow, orange and blue colour prevails. Only a few natural historic dyes are in use today, a rather strange phenomenon, considering that only natural dyes existed just one hundred years ago. The article also presents a classification, in alphabetical order, of the plans yielding the main dyes which have been in use from antiquity until about one hundred years ago in the Mediterranean basin. In addition, the historical and geographical identity of the plant is pictured, and the relevant information is completed with the basic dyeing-stuff, supplied by each plant, which is responsible for the final colouring.  

The Representations of the Attic Vases: Some Thoughts Véronique Lézine-Velissaropoulou

If we want to understand the meaning of the representations decorating the fifth century BC Attic vases, we have to analyze them in their entirety and details. These representations, under a fictitious simplicity, develop an ensemble of indications that cause the intervention of time, which controls the narration. For this reason, there are more than one concepts of time in these depictions, the one of the narration, the other of the myth, which are transferred in the time of use of the vessel. This absence of temporality must be contrasted with the successive decorative bands of some vases, which are embellished with a series of boats or dolphins in the sea, in the water that is, which not only is represented on, but also contained in the actual vessel. In this multiplication of the subject, the smouldering rotation -that has marked the vase during its manufacturing and can be read through the rhythms of plasticity- transmits a motion to the dolphins and boats, eternally floating on the water, the water that is mixed with and scented by the wine. However, the movement created by the game of kottavos. that is the actual rotation around the handle, this time invalidates the repetition. Thus, the unit becomes a substitute for the successive series. Finally, we wonder whether the optical illusion of motion is intentional or not. If the answer is positive, then we reach the conclusion that the potters/painters of the Attic vases have invented after all the cinema, even before it was actually invented.  

The “Spelios” of Antissa: The Oracle of Orpheus on Lesvos Ch.V. Charisis, A.B. Charisis, B.A. Charisis

According to ancient sources, the oracle of Orpheus in Lesvos island was famous in antiquity. Hoewever, its exact location has remained unknown until today. The authors of this article present new evidence and data which can very probably identity the cave (=spelios) of Antissa on the west Lesvos with the popular oracle.

The Greeks in the East Zainul Wahab

The first expedition of the Greeks to the valley of the Indus River (the present Pakistan) was focused on the survey of the river's course. For the first time the Greeks have been acquainted with the people of this area during the reign of the great Achaemenid monarch Darius I (552-486). The second contact, the expedition of Alexander the Great in 326 BC, has been more dynamic and effective. As a result, the entire valley of the Indus River came temporarily under Greek control. Although this situation was a short-lived phenomenon, it paved the way for later invaders from Central Asia. We can follow the course of Alexander through the narration of Arrianus and other Greek historians. Thus, the first expedition of Alexander to India proved to be ephemeral, while the second Greek invasion lasted longer. A remarkable effect of the Greek influence on Pakistan is the art of Gadara. In spite of the fact that this art appeared long after the years of the Greek rule in Pakistan, its traditions, established by the Greek artists, became a most popular vehicle of expression and a valuable deposit to be developed by later local artists. Another aspect of the Greek influence on Pakistan is represented by the Greek coins of Bactria.  

The Profiteering Character of Modern Athletics Konstantina Yoggaki

This article investigates the phenomenon of athletics as a social plasm, in the light of its profiteering aspect, which today tends to undermine not only the athletic spirit, but also the system of values of the society in general. The questions to be answered are the following: what exactly is the profiteering character of the athletics, what reasons have created this modern phenomenon, how this problem can be solved? On the basis of modern data there is the possibility the profiteering character of athletics to be refuted, so that the athletics to regain their lost originality. Prerequisite for the success of this objective is the radical reconstruction of the social structure and system of values, which will be carried out in parallel with a reformation in education, so that the latter, now being a servant, will become the creator of society. Thus, the models and standards of success of modern society will be replaced by paragons of values, so that a new conception will be formed, completely different from the glorification of performance and records, which will add a new moral content in athletics.  

Aspects of Diversity in Byzantium: The Presence of Blacks Afentra Moutzali

The blacks, being a minority, neither became a subject to Byzantine writers nor played a distinguished role in the society of the period. The documentation of the presence of blacks in the Byzantine society is attempted on the basis of the literary sources and the few examples of their representation in floor and mural mosaics and in miniatures of manuscripts. The most usual terms with which the Byzantine texts refer to the people of the black race are "Ethiopians", "Blacks'', "Indians", ' Nigers", etc. Sporadic information about biack kings, warriors, officials, bandits, saints, vagabond beggars, demons and slaves occur in hagiological, historical and philological texts. Conclusively, we can say that, in spite of the Greco-Roman tradition and the doctrines of the Christian Church in regard to the equality of the human race, there existed in Byzantium a popular racism, which attributed to the black people diabolic characteristics, since the devil was depicted like an Ethiopian, with or without horns, wings and tail, or mocked their racial diversity, since a segment of the people believed that the black color of the skin was a typical feature of ugliness.  

Kavala: Reuse or the Bric-a-Brac of Monuments Aristi Papadopoulou

The Imaret and the dwelling complex of the founder of the last Egyptian dynasty are two of the most important urban features of the historic center of Kavala. Nowadays their destiny is connected with the viability of a firm, in spite of the Law 1490/8 of 1984, which provides the restoration and revival of real estates "for the benefit of cultural causes of both sides", that is the Greek and the Egyptian one. Having as starting-point the lodgings of Mohammed AN, two urban interventions have been carried out: the first, that caused the tearing down of a large number of houses, was the construction of Imaret, which housed educational and charitable functions; the second had to do with the formation of the royal square, which was decorated with the statue of his lordship. The mansion, although it was inconspicuously incorporated in the urban network in its initial phase, is today a sticking out architecture. Since the mid-war years it has been used as a museum, forming an entity with the royal square. The worries of the Egyptian part and of the local society for its preservation are justifiable, however the perspective to be reused as a restaurant, and thus to be treated as a merchandise, at the expense of both societies, on the one hand monopolizes the development targets connected with this monument, and on the other shrinks and reduces the public space of the city.

The Flora and Fauna in Prehistoric Cyprus Anastassia Tsaliki

The animals and plants play an important role in the understanding of ancient societies. They are not only environmental indicators, but they also reveal information about the food, economy, burial customs, diseases and everyday life in antiquity in general. A plethora of evidence, resulting from the research on the animal and plant residues, comes from many important prehistoric sites of Cyprus. Mammals, birds, fish, shells and plants are called with their common but also their scientific names and unfold their wealth. However, the study of the relevant bibliography is indispensable for those who are particularly interested in this subject.  

Εκπαιδευτικές σελίδες: Μυθικά τέρατα των παραμυθιών: Η προετοιμασία του Περσέα Μαρίζα Ντεκάστρο

Τεύχος 84, Σεπτέμβριος 2002 No. of pages: 114
Κύριο Θέμα: Mόδα και άγχος Alison Clarke, Daniel Miller

Σύμβολα και συμβολισμοί στις ελληνικές παραδοσιακές ενδυμασίες Μανόλης Βαρβούνης

H ενδυμασία των Kρητικών στην περίοδο της Bενετοκρατίας (1211-1669) Αικατερίνη Κ. Μυλοποταμιτάκη

Ένας αιώνας μόδα Ιωάννα Παπαντωνίου

H κάπα: ερμηνεύοντας το σύμβολο και το ένδυμα στην Eλλάδα και την Πολυνησία Άννα Παπαστεργίου

H ένδυση στη νεότερη και σύγχρονη εποχή Ιωάννης Πετρόπουλος

Eλληνική και διεθνής μόδα στη σύγχρονη εποχή: μια συνέντευξη του Γιάννη Tσεκλένη στον Iωάννη Πετρόπουλο Γιάννης Τσεκλένης, Ιωάννης Πετρόπουλος

Από τους ελληνικούς κεκρυφάλους, στους μάλλινους κεφαλόδεσμους της Aιγύπτου και τα ζωνάρια της Aρκαδίας Σοφία Τσουρινάκη

Eλληνορράπται και Biedermeier: η φουστανέλα του Όθωνα και η στολή της Aμαλίας Δέσποινα Χριστοδούλου

Άλλα θέματα: Άγιοι Tόποι, διαδρομή στους τόπους της μνήμης, της πίστης, της ιστορίας: μία συζήτηση με τον καθηγητή Γ.Π. Λάββα Μάνος Μικελάκης

Mεταλλικά νήματα ιστορικών υφασμάτων: Τεχνολογία κατασκευής και συντήρησης Σταύρος Πρωτοπαπάς, Ελπίδα Χριστοφορίδου

O σουσαμόμυλος Μάκης Αξιώτης

Mουσειακά εκπαιδευτικά προγράμματα στο Nοσοκομείο Παίδων: μια νέα ευκαιρία για κοινωνικές υπηρεσίες Δέσποινα Καλεσσοπούλου

Eπτά διευκρινίσεις σχετικά με τις προϊστορικές γραφές του Aιγαίου Άρτεμις Καρναβά

Μουσείο: Mουσείο Aρχαιολογικού Xώρου Mυστρά Αιμιλία Μπακούρου, Παρή Καλαμαρά, Έλια Βλάχου

Ενημερωτικές στήλες και απόψεις: Aρχαιομετρικά Nέα Γιάννης Μπασιάκος

Aρχαιολογικά Nέα: ειδήσεις, εκθέσεις, συνέδρια, διαλέξεις, βιβλία Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα (επιμ.)

Πολιτισμός 2000 Γιώργος Λιόντος

Πληροφορική: Αρχαιολογικά περιοδικά στο Διαδίκτυο Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

Eικαστικά δρώμενα: Zαχαρίας Kουμπλής, ζωγραφική-κατασκευές – Nίκος Mπαχαρίδης, αναδρομική έκθεση γλυπτικής Δήμητρα Μήττα

English summaries: Dress in later times and dress in our day and age Ioannis Petropoulos

In the middle of the 19th century, haute couture and the fashion industry made their appearance. The tailors and women tailors of Frankish costume (Frangoraftes and Frangoraftisses) reproduced the fashions of the western world which eventually were to take the place of local Greek costumes. In this issue of the journal items of clothing are described such as the woollen, Sarakatsan gown which was embroidered with symbols, the Hawaian feather cape, the Greek shepherd’s cape made of goat’s wool, the Greek technique of spinning without weft as well as practices common to many countries and civilizations such as the Danish, Pharaonic Egypt, Southern Italy and Peru. The freedom and sense of anxiety that goes with the fashions of the 1990s onward is discussed, also the couturier Yannis Tseklenis’ belief in the social values that lie behind the dress code.

A Century of Fashion loanna Papantoniou

Since the issue here is the garment, fashion nowadays is the professional occupation in designing, making and marketing original, haute couture clothing. The haute couture, covering the need for change, supplies the market with new products, which serve as models for the known as pret-a-porter garments, a term introduced in the 1960s by Pierre Cardin. The twentieth century can be characterized as the century of the great haute couture maitres, which, however, is marked by two disastrous world wars that have in turn determined the relation of the emancipated woman with the haute couture and vise versa. For the first time the garment is commercially promoted in the great exhibitions of London (1890) and Paris (1900). Since, approximately, 1930 the simple chic taste prevails. Nothing is loud in a world that knows how to behave and to change clothes, appropriate to a variety of occasions, even within the span of a day. The World War II preserves this attitude, although now the dresses become shorter, and the shoes with a platform heel - made of cork, rope or wood in combination with other cheap materials — are a novelty. In the postwar years the haute couture firms are reorganized. A new type of fashion shop, the boutique and a new form of formal dress, the cocktail dress, which gradually replaces the long evening gown, are the highlights of the period. In 1947 Dior makes a revolution with the "New Look", while the fashion historians consider the years between 1947 arid the late 1950s as the Renaissance period of haute couture. In the 1960s the dressing revolution that introduced the "mini" has not come out of the blue, since some designers have already advanced in shortening the skirt; this "mini" skirt, if designed by Jacques Esterel, can be wide, with countless petticoats to bell it out - as to match the style of Brigitte Bardot -, or narrow, as to elevate the silhouette of Aundrey Hepburn, the muse of lun£p VTE Zipavoi. In 1980 the haute couture of Paris seems to have lost everything. The fashion trends that follow are char¬acterized by anarchy and confusion. Through super spectacular exhibitions arises the dogma of fashion for fashion or of fashion for only one exhibition. The costly, extreme creations are worn only once by movie stars in the Oscar Awards celebration or by some fabulously rich ladies. Japan appears as a bright phenomenon in the fashion firmament, and designers, such as loei MiyidKe, who introduce us in the twenty-first century simply confirm it. Miyake is considered as a national capital in his country, an esteem which provides him with every opportunity and facility to carry on his research into textile and garment. Today, owing to the TV Fashion Channel and the countless fashion magazines, we can observe a beautiful new generation to be dressed - or undressed -without any imagination, probably because the amply offered supply has created a big confusion.  

The Technique of Sprang: From the Greek Headgear to the Woolen Headdress of Egypt and the Belts of Arcadia Sophia Tsourinaki

The term sprang means a fabric consisting of a single set of elements, as well as the technique of "plaiting parallel threads with fixed threads" on a frame. In the manufacturing process, a continuous thread is fixed at both ends in a braiding frame, and plaiting begins from the ends to the center by intertwining threads in alternate rows. The tools the worker uses are her fingers and a few small sticks. A characteristic feature of sprang is the finish line or "meeting" line which consists of a chained row or different thread at the center, designed to hold the elements in place. The elasticity is considerable, and the fabric produced is often lace-like openwork, but it can also be compact and braid-like. Sprang bands and headgear have been found in the course of archaeological excavations in different sites, and the earliest known examples, definitely made on a frame, come from the Bronze Age in Denmark (about 1400 BC). There also exist Iron Age examples from Europe, and later Coptic bag-shaped caps from Egypt, items made of undyed linen or dyed in different colours wool. Fifth-century BC vases from Greece and South Italy show women with frames lying on their laps or hunging on the wall, as well as female figures with spang-like headgears. It has already been accepted that these frames were probably used for sprang. On the evidence supplied by the Greek vase representations and the rare textiles that have survived to the present day, a practical application of the technique is examined, particularly its use in the "Coptic" sprang hair nets of the Benaki Museum in Athens. Plaiting on a frame, especially for belts using a tubular warp, seems to be deeply rooted in many handicraft traditions in Greece, Scandinavia, Mexico and Pakistan, where this traditional technique has been kept alive.  

Cretan Attire During the Venetian Rule (1211-1669) Aikaterini Mylopotamitaki

During the thirteenth century, the first century of the Venetian rule on Crete, the attire of the islanders remained attached to the Byzantine dressing models. However, starting from the fourteenth century on, first the male and later the female costumes are influenced by the dressing styles of the West, that will fully affect the local attire by the early fifteenth century. Nevertheless, it seems that even in the second half of the fifteenth century some Cretan women continue to wear as a formal Clothing the Byzantine dress.

The Cape: Interpreting the Symbol and Garment in Greece and Polynesia Anna Papastergiou

Two different types of cape are presented in this article: the feather cape of Hawaii and the shepherd's cape of Greece, dissimilar dresses not only in appearance and qualities, but also in their social symbolism. The Hawaiian cape - the making of which requires not only feathers but also special talent and religious belief - is a symbol of great social and spiritual power, worn only by the chief of the tribe and those who deserve it, due to their excellent performance in war. On the other hand, the Greek shepherd's cape is a simple, practical garment, is made of wool and is worn by common villagers, especially those who work outdoors, under tough weather conditions, it is waterproof and worm, but also heavy and not quite flexible. This kind of cape is mostly found in mountainous regions, where cattle breeding and wood cutting are the main financial sources. Although the Hawaiian feather cape has undergone changes through the centuries, under the baneful influence of the European conquerors, and has finally disappeared, the shepherd's cape in Greece is still in use, essentially unaffected in function, properties and symbolism in its age-long course.  

Hellinorraptai and Biedermeier: the Foustanella of Othon and the Costume of Amalia Despina Christodoulou

In this article the creation of the foustanella of Othon and the costume of Amalia, the attire, that is, of the first royal couple, the Bavarian monarchs of modern Greece, that became the "national costume" of the country, is examined. Othon was initially encouraged to wear the foustanella -the famous white kilt worn by the chieftains of the Greek War of Independence-, in order, he, a foreigner, to be better accepted by his subjects; while his queen practically "invented" her costume for similar reasons. However, while the foustanella is accepted to be a more or less authentic expression of the Greek tradition, the costume of Amalia is regarded as an artificial, folkloric invention. Yet, how accurate these judgements can be? It has been argued that the foustanella became very popular in the newly born Greek state, because it was chosen as the official uniform of the Greek army, although this adoption had been fiercely opposed by those who had considered it as a dress of Albanian origin, therefore unacceptable to be the national costume of Greece. Amalia's outfit, however, was not at first intended to be a national costume, but simply the courtly dress of her ladies-in-waiting. The stoli Amalias, as it came to be known, was a combination of the main European Biedermeier dress style with other components from the Peloponnese and the islands, Hydra for example. Biedermeier was a romantic fashion trend in Germany and Austria during the first half of the nineteenth century, a popular style also expressed in music and furniture. It must also be added that in nineteenth-century Europe, Germany in particular, there existed a great interest in "traditional" or "folk" cultures, thus part of the royal couple's concern for the "traditional" costumes of Greece may be related with their intention to create, more or less, a folk culture for their new country. Even so, such "traditional" attires as the foustanella were destined to short live as daily wear, and they finally did in the twentieth century. Therefore, the disappearance of the Helllnoraptai, the tailors who specialized in traditional costumes such as the foustanella, since even the late nineteenth century, is an undeniable proof of the prevalence of the Frangika, the clothing of western style. Nevertheless, the initial appearance of the Hellinoraptai must be interpreted as part of the social and cultural changes that the Biedermeier style and its patrons introduced to Greece: the creation of the new state demanded the creation of a new national costume to go with it.  

Symbols and Symbolisms of the Greek Traditional Costumes Manolis Varvounis

The article examines the large issue of symbols and symbolisms in folk art, with special reference to the traditional costume. The case of the apron from the female costume of the Sarakatsani of Greece has been chosen as a representative example. Thus, the symbols decorating this apron - crosses, snakes, the sun, the moon, flora motives - and their symbolism are examined, and general conclusions are drawn regarding the role of symbols in the embellishment of the Greek traditional costume and in the culture of Greeks in general. The case of the aforementioned apron can then serve as a model for similar approaches to the symbolical dimension of the decorative repertoire that adorns Ihe traditional Greek costume, and as such it is treated here.

Fashion and Anxiety Alison Clarke, Daniel Miller

The relationship of individuals to fashion is socially mediated. Individuals are frequently too anxious about the choices to be made to proceed without various forms of support and reassurance. Where possible, support involves close friends and family who are trusted to give advice reflecting care and concern. Where these forms of support are themselves too fraught or are unavailable, there may be recourse to catalogues and commercial advice or finally to fully structured regimes of clothing advice such as provided by CMB. In practice, individuals may use a combination of such supports. Certainly, we do not wish to deny the existence of women who do not resort to any of these devices and who are, indeed, relatively unanxious about their clothing choices. Nevertheless, generalisations appear to be warranted about a pervasive and, we suspect, increasing anxiety around the evaluation of any particular choice of clothing, alongside an intensive concern to know what the normative fashion choice should be. The term normative appears appropriate in that it is used to infer both a tendency to return to an imagined homogenising norm (e.g. the little black dress), but also a vague, but present, sense of morality associated with this. Indeed, even where individuals make an effort to be distinct, they seem just as concerned to properly establish what it is they are being distinct from. It is important to recognise that what we see around us cannot be reduced to any simple moral agenda, since what has been presented here is inherently contradictory. You cannot have democratic liberty and equality without a concomitant sense of anxiety that is the precise result of that experience of freedom. It is above all the emancipation that was achieved through feminism that has left women with this huge burden of freedom and this further accentuation of much older fears and concerns over social embarrassment. But if the alternative is a return to those older forms of authority, of the constraints of officially sanctioned sartorial codes, and an unwarranted respect for the voice of industry elites about what fashion "is", then it may well seem that an anxiety that requires still more shops to be visited before making a choice, or that makes a full wardrobe appear to have "nothing in it", may, on reflection, be a price worth paying.  

Modern Greek and International Fashion: An Interview with Yannis Tseklenis loannis Petropoulos

The anthropological and historical analyses of this current issue are supplemented by the relevant comments and observations of an active and well-respected Greek fashion designer. In his interview with I. Petropoulos, Yannis Tseklenis illuminates numerous practical and theoretical matters connected with the globalisation in fashion and touches on future trends. Among other things Tseklenis brings out the decisive (albeit unseen) contribution of the anonymous consumer in setting trends. Clothes have an undeniable social function, beyond their aesthetic value. As Tseklenis puts it; "A priest's garb makes him a priest... You can't teach English at university if you' re dressed as an Arab... You can't preach from the pulpit dressed as a frogman".

Historic Metal Threads: Manufacture and Restoration Technology Stavros Protopapas, Elpida Christophoridou

The metal threads of the historic period, made mainly from precious metals - gold and silver -, are considered as the first artificial fibers manufactured by humans: Delicate wires and sheet-bands, single or combined with other natural - animal or plant - fibers were widely applied in manufacturing and decorating valuable textiles. In this article the materials and techniques of manufacturing metal threads are described, and the various methods - mechanic, chemical, etc - of cleaning that have been used for the restoration of textiles are analyzed. At the same time, the technical and ethic limitations and the problems inherent in the various methods of cleaning, due to the simultaneous presence of heterogeneous materials (e.g. metals combined with plant or animal fibers and organic pigments), are detected and recorded. Finally, the especially important role of the pedantic preliminary examination and identification of all, if possible, the materials used is underlined. This procedure can help the restorer to make a factual decision as regards the kind and extension of the proper and safe interventions, necessary for the restoration of textiles of the historic period, which are interwoven or decorated with metal threads.

Seven Clarifications Regarding the Prehistoric Aegean Script Artemis Karnava

The study of the prehistoric Aegean script is an underdeveloped field in the Greek academia, a fact which entails lack of academic interest and scarcity of relevant publications. The public's interest, however, make it imperative certain research targets to be clarified as these are followed by script researchers. Therefore, seven necessary clarifications and basic bibliography are offered: 1."Language" and "script" constitute two different notions. 2. The term "prehistoric Aegean scripts" refers to three scripts invented and used in the second millennium BC in Crete and mainland Greece: the Cretan Hieroglyphic, Linear A and Linear B. 3. The Phaistos Disk is not a document of the Cretan Hieroglyphic script, but a unique sample of an otherwise unknown script. 4. The terms "Hieroglyphic1' and "Linear" scripts are conventional names which are still in use mainly for historical reasons. 5. The Cretan Hieroglyphic script is not the forerunner of the so-called Linear scripts, A and B. 6. It is by no means possible to prove that the acrophqnic (or rebus) principle was used for the original creation of the scripts signs. 7. Linear B is the only prehistoric Aegean scripts which is deciphered.

Holy Land: A Route in the Land of Memory, Faith and History Manos Mikelakis

The discussion with Professor G. Lavas about the Holy Land has a dual objective: On the one hand to give us the opportunity to deal thoroughly with crucial issues of Biblical Archaeology and its Scientology; and on the other, to elevate Biblical Archaeology as a science which seeks the self-consciousness of man as regards memory, history, reality and his own desires. "It could be most useful, if the researcher of Biblical Archaeology, as a neutral observer, could let reality -finds and testimonies - lighten up the events and restrain himself from final interpretations - which could be postponed in due time -, in case an obstinate or monolithic position could create a disagreement between testimonies and finds".  

The sesame oil press Makis Axiotis

The sesame plant is very ancient, mentioned by ancient writers as being cultivated in Persia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and in the Indies. Hippocrates, Galenos and Dioskourides used it as medicine. Menandros writes of a pudding made of sesame served at weddings, which was supposed to ensure the couple had many children. The sesame press existed before the industrial age and was used to produce the tasty Lenten halva and the nutricious sesame pulp (tahini). The saponaria plant also known as tsoueni was an indispensable ingredient of halva. An Ottoman register of 1548 records that sesame was cultivated in Lesvos, it was also imported from Asia Minor and from Lemnos.Today there are five halva factories known to us in Lesvos that indicate that there were facilities powered by animals available on the island from the time of the Turkish occupation up to the middle of the 20th century. If one is to understand how the sesame press worked one should take a look at the Roman flour press which was hand or animal powered (molo asinaria). Such mills were found in Pompey and Ostia. Such presses were made of volcanic stone. All sesame presses found on Lesvos are made of the local volcanic stone. The similarities in the construction of the sesame press with the Roman flour press are interesting and should be looked into.

Visual art events Dimitra Mitta

Two one man shows were organized at the Old Archaeological Museum of Salonika during the 2001 Dimitria.In his work, Zaharias Koublis combines a craftsman’s skill with an artist’s sensibility. Often, on various types of material, he makes use of the leftovers of human activities. His sun, for example, with its look of the all seeing eye, is nothing but a colander. Rust and ochre earth colours rarely confront an intense red or blue. The artist repeatedly uses two motifs: a steatopygic woman’s form which refers to Neolithic statuettes and to sculptures of the post war period (Arp, Richier, Moore) and a fragmented shape: a fish bone? A wind –up bird? A guitar? Koublis has successfully integrated these recognizable influences in his work. The sculptures of self-taught Nikos Baharides are the meeting points not just of artists such as Rodin, Caro, Arp, Richier and Moore but also of the art of Neolithic statuettes, Minoan subject matter and woman as the source of life. Baharides depicts the human body, fish and birds in a realistic or abstract manner. He is guided by his use of found materials. The charred pieces of wood left over from fires, are particularly interesting. The burnt piece of olive wood from Thasos creates an Ikaros even more dramatic than that of Rodin.  

Museum Educational Programs in the Children’s Hospital: a New Chance for Social Services Despoina Kalessopoulou

The article presents the application of educational programs in the Children's Hospital and the parameters of their planning. Museums through a systematic cooperation can very well offer alternative modes of social support and expression: the museum objects give the patients the possibility to release their sentiments in a symbolic language. The educational activities create for the sick a connection with the reality outside hospital and offer them protection from the dangerous self-isolation. The interaction with the museum's personnel enriches the social contacts and contributes to the development of psychic and social skillfulness. Consequently, the activation of vehicles that transport experiences from the cultural space to the secluded hospital environment will add more quality to the life of the sick children and a new meaning in the field of our activities as well.

Εκπαιδευτικές σελίδες: Mυθικά τέρατα των παραμυθιών: O Mινώταυρος (α΄ μέρος) Μαρίζα Ντεκάστρο

Τεύχος 85, Δεκέμβριος 2002 No. of pages: 170
Κύριο Θέμα: Iστορία και κοινωνιολογία του ενδύματος: ορισμένες μεθοδολογικές παρατηρήσεις Roland Barthes

Mόδα / Iστορία Jean-Paul Mattera

Tο νόημα ενός περιζώματος: ο Γκάντι, η ένδυση και ο ινδικός εθνικισμός Emma Tarlo

H κλωστοϋφαντουργία στις αρχές του εικοστού αιώνα Σάββας Βασιλειάδης

Tελετουργικές και θεσμοποιημένες μορφές παρενδυσίας Θεόδωρος Παραδέλλης

H θεωρία της ένδυσης Ιωάννης Πετρόπουλος

H σκοπιά της Eκκλησίας: η ένδυση στο δίκαιο των ιερών κανόνων Κωνσταντίνος Γ. Πιτσάκης

Ψυχολογία και ενδυμασία Νίκος Τζαβάρας

Tα υφάσματα των νομάδων και η συνάντηση με τον Joseph Beuys Ίρις Tζαχίλη

H ελληνική φορεσιά στο θέατρο «Δόρα Στράτου»: παράδοση ή νεωτερισμός; Σοφία Χανδακά

Άλλα θέματα: O Eρμής της αρχαίας Mεσσήνης. Eφαρμογή τεχνολογίας Laser για απομάκρυνση ιζηματογενών αποθέσεων Αμερίμνη Γαλανού, Ιωάννα Δογάνη, Παρασκευή Πουλή

Φυσικοχημική διερεύνηση μεταλλικών νημάτων σε μουσειακά υφάσματα Σταύρος Πρωτοπαπάς, Ελπίδα Χριστοφορίδου, Αθανάσιος Καραμπότσος

H άγνωστη ιστορία της νεότερης Aθήνας. H προσωρινή στέγαση των δημόσιων λειτουργιών της νέας πρωτεύουσας το 1834 Διονύσιος Ρουμπιέν

O Xρυσός Aιώνας της Oλλανδικής Zωγραφικής από τη συλλογή του Mουσείου της Nτόρντρεχτ Αγγέλα Ταμβάκη

Eκπαιδευτικά προγράμματα αρχαιολογίας στην Eλλάδα Κώστας Κασβίκης, Κλεονίκη Νικονάνου, Εύα Φουρλίγκα

Aρχαιολογία, μουσείο και εκπαίδευση. Έρευνα της ελληνικής και της διεθνούς εμπειρίας Στέλιος Ανδρέου, Κώστας Κωτσάκης

Mουσειακή εκπαίδευση και αρχαιολογία. Παραδείγματα από τρεις ευρωπαϊκές χώρες Εύα Φουρλίγκα, Κλεονίκη Νικονάνου, Κώστας Κασβίκης, Ιουλία Γαβριηλίδου

Tο Kλασικό στον κινηματογράφο Stefan Altekamp

Μουσείο: Aρχαιολογικό Mουσείο Kέας Γιάννα Βενιέρη

Ενημερωτικές στήλες και απόψεις: Kατασκευές για έρημες ακτές. Mια εικαστική προσέγγιση στην πνευματικότητα του φυσικού χώρου ΜΙΤ Μητρόπουλος

Aρχαιομετρικά Nέα Γιάννης Μπασιάκος

Αρχαιολογικά Νέα: ειδήσεις, εκθέσεις, συνέδρια, διαλέξεις, επιστολές, βιβλία Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα (επιμ.)

Συντηρητές χωρίς Σύνορα – ελληνικό τμήμα Χρήστος Καρύδης

Tο Kέντρο «Γαία» Αριστέα Βαενά

Πληροφορική: Αρχαιολογικά περιοδικά στο Διαδίκτυο, από την έντυπη στην ηλεκτρονική δημοσίευση Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

English summaries: The theory of dress Ioannis Petropoulos

Roland Barthes speaks of dress or fashion as being a social mechanism. Is there such a thing as a formal, structured “language” of dress, is one of the questions asked. Also how does psychoanalysis look on such things as the sense of shame that goes with nudity, our submission to the “urgent commands” of fashion and how clothes are identified with our social image. Could transvestism or drag shows be a way of ultimately enforcing the social code of sexual identity behind dress? What is the connection between colonialism and Mahatma Gandhi’s khadi loincloth? How did the hats worn by nomads become a source of inspiration to Joseph Beuys? Can one find traces of an identity in the present Paris fashions? And finally, are men allowed to wear earrings in church?

History and Sociology of Clothing: Methodological Observations Roland Barthes

A host of methodological problems attends to the study of the history of clothing, particularly its various descriptions of internal (qualitative) developments. Conventional historical treatments are incapable of answering such basic questions as "precisely when does an article of clothing change in function or form?". Periodization is proved to be too narrow, and many researchers have wrongly approached dress as a purely historical event, in the hope of adumbrating the spirit of the times. Whatever its primary origin and function -such as protection or decoration — , clothing constitutes a system. That is, every article of clothing is subsumed under a formal, normative system instituted by society, In Saussurian terms, the clothes of an individual -or even his/her hair style— are the equivalent of parole, while the wider system to which they belong -the rules governing sartorial combinations and uses, the constraints and uses, degrees of permissiveness and toleration- constitutes the underlying iangue. Fashion (mode) is thus always a "fact of dress as a system" (costume). But parole can turn into Iangue , e.g. when a social group collectively adopts an individualized type of dress - which often happens in men's fashion; conversely, Iangue can turn into concrete parole, as often occurs in female haute couture. In post-Darwinian terms, individual habillement corresponds to a biological organism, whereas costume to a species. As a system, dress (costume) can and should be analysed both syn chronically and diachronically. To return to my opening reservation: dress, though a product of history and especially susceptible of change in periods of turbulence, should be studied above all in the light of values that are oppositional and structured as social models.

What’s in a Loincloth?: Gandhi, Clothing and Indian Nationalism Emma Tarlo

No public figure of the twentieth century exploited the communicative potential of dress more thoroughly than the Indian nationalist leader, Mahatma Gandhi, whose simple white cotton loincloth became a key symbol of India's struggle against British colonial rule. Like many elite Indian men of his day, Gandhi begun his adult life impressed by European clothing. However, years of struggle as a human rights barrister in South Africa taught him that racism went beyond clothes, and he became convinced that India could never attain political or economic freedom in the clothing of the colonizer. When he abandoned his European apparel and called on all Indians to boycott or burn their foreign cloth, it was a public dismissal of what he called "the tinsel splendours of Western civilization" - a civilization he chose to challenge, not with luscious elite Indian garb, but with the simple coarse cotton garments of the Indian peasantry. The white cotton khadi (hand-spun and hand-woven cloth) he promoted as national dress was intended to unite all Indians -whether rural or urban, male or female- providing a powerful symbol of national unity whilst at the same time ensuring the revival of the threatened industries of hand-spinning and weaving. But although Gandhi was highly successful at exploiting the communicative potential of clothes, the subtlety of his message was often misunderstood. This becomes particularly clear, when exploring the symbolism of the loincloth which he originally adopted as a temporary and drastic measure in 1921, but which he ended up wearing till the end of his life.

The Textiles of the Nomads and the Meeting with Joseph Beuys Iris Tzachili

This article deals with the textiles of the nomads, the pilot, the position they had in these people's life, their mode of manufacturing, way of using and symbolic dimension throughout the centuries, form the Scythians to the nomads of the present Mongolia. The German artist Joseph Beuys has developed an experiential, rich relationship with these textiles. We must point out, however, how different is the approach of an archaeologist from that of an artist: the first approaches knowledge through his methodological instruments, which, the most wiil allow him to treasure is a touch of nostalgia for the different; while the second can adopt the form, the symbols, even the senses in order to express some personal realities.

Ritual and Institutionalized Form of Transvestism Th. Paradellis

Transvestism, which in our civilization seems to have a simple and one-way meaning, is proved to be a very general and vague term, when included in the cultural and social content of other people and placed under different historical conditions. Transvestism, in general, is defined as the total or partial adoption of dress, behavior, way of speaking and works of the opposite sex. The argument that transvestism can have different reasons and cultural content and that it is not necessarily connected with homosexuality is documented through a brief presentation of certain selected and characteristic examples. The concept of transvestism obliges us to exceed the biological sex, social sex, sexuality and reproduction, in order to adopt an attitude that takes under consideration the cultural and social components of each meaning and their interrelation.

Textile Industry in the Beginning of the Twentieth Century Savvas Vasileiadis

The technology of textile industry was formed almost parallel with the industrial revolution. It was the textile industry that sometimes caused the rapid changes that the industrial revolution brought about, while others drew power from the latter. Until then the textile industry was a mere activity, mainly of handicraft expression in its original phase and of applied art in its final stage, where the combinations of colour and the design were playing an important role in the final appearance of the textile product. With the evolution of technology, this artistic character was limited to the designing procedure and was almost effaced from the production level. On the contrary, the systematization of knowledge was strengthened and expressed through machinery and procedure designing in an industrial scale. The end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century signal the conclusion of this long transition. Through continuous efforts the technology of textile industry obtains a form, which will become a point of reference for the years to come. A technological substratum is thus created, that makes the technological evolution possible. Relevant improvements will be continuous created, they will be many and important, but not radical and subversive. The next landmark will be set in the field of materials, and a new era will begin with the invasion of electronics in the textile industry procedures. The examination of the early twentieth-century textile industry technology in this framework offers the opportunity not only to review the course made so far, but also to explore the horizons ahead. Thus, it is possible to follow the progress from the older handicraft stage to the industrial production and, at the same time, to the formation of the needs, which will lead the developments in the near future. All this long evolutionary route of the technology of textile industry is also a reference to the incomparable human effort for covering the need of dressing and, at the same time, a monument of the continuous endeavour of the engineers, designers and makers, of all these modern media of the Promethean spirit.

Clothing from the Viewpoint of the Byzantine Church: The Canon Law Konstantinos G. Pitsakis

Although there exists, at least in principle, the scriptural disapproval of the excessive care for clothing (Mat. 6:28-31. Luke 12:22-28; Mat. 11:8, Luke 7:25: James 2:2-4). strongly reflected on the doctrine of the Church Fathers as well, this disapproval is mirrored in the Canon Law of the Eastern Church with regard to the clergy members only, to whom the pursuit of luxurious attire is forbidden (Canon 27 of the Council in Trullo of 692 and Canon 16 of the Vllth Ecumenical Council of Nicaea of 787). Such prohibitions does not exist for laymen. On the contrary, already the Synod of Gangrae, of about 340, in its broader effort to eradicate extremities of ascetic spirit, barred the clothing in rags for piety reasons and the ex¬pression of contempt to those dressed luxuriously (Canon 12), as well as the dressing of women in a man's attire for austerity reasons (Canon 13). Special Canons (62 and 71 of the Council of Trullo) also prohibited ths masquerade or the exchanging of suits between men and women, in the framework of feasts, which had been considered as pagan survivals. It is often argued that these regulations prohibited women from wearing clothes appropriate to men. In reality, however, such a general prohibition, corresponding to that contained in the Old Testament Law (Deuter. 22:5], was never introduced expressly in the Eastern Church Law.

The Greek Costume in the Dora Stratou’s Theater: Tradition or Innovation? Sophia Handaka

This article investigates the face acquired by tradition in modern Greek society, and in the material civilization in particular. Focusing our interest in the costume collection of the Dora Stratou's theater, we argue that while tradition is common in its natural expression, it becomes individual in its fabricated dimension, The traditional practices obtain a very different form, role and position in society through an objective procedure. Using theater as a model, we observe that the excessive emphasis on "authenticity" and the "archetype" -terms that clearly separate the historical truth from innovation and novelty- has only a relevant value in a world where change is a continuous process. Dora Stratou has collected Greek costumes on the basis of their appearance and availability, while any other particular criteria used had more to do with their appropriateness to a dancing and theatrical performance than with these dresses as traditional objects. Apart from being an indispensable factor in a dancing performance, costume is the expression of cultural definition and ethnic identity. Its study should not rise questions as regards its authenticity and originality, since the standards defining these qualities are flexible and subjects to change. The criteria of "traditionalism" are fluid by definition, therefore conventional evaluations of the "traditional" often fail to render the appropriation of different elements, new or old ones. It has often been stressed that traditional life, although constantly subjected to changes, is continuously "handed down", from one generation to the next, without ever loosing its value. From the moment it enters the realm of the conscious, massively produced and delivered, transmission that claims the ensuring of continuity, traditional life acquires various expressions and dimensions. It becomes tradition, with a capital T. Past is idealized, and civilization becomes an air-tied mass. As a result, we perceive "hellenization" beyond time and history. What is really missing is the historical and rational relation with the past.

Physicochemical Investigation of Metal Threads in Historic Textiles Stavros Protopapas, Elpida Christophoridou, Athanasios Karampotsos

Textile objects answer many and various needs of man and have been made by a great variety of materials. The metals used for making metal threads, employed since antiquity for the decoration of precious textiles, represent a special group of materials with many peculiarities. The simultaneous presence of disparate materials, such as the non-organic metals and the organic fibers and dyes, makes the conservation work problematic and complex, both technically and ethically. The examination of the morphology and the clear chemical identification of all the material components of the textile is a necessary prerequisite, before the beginning of any conservation work. The results of such a preliminary examination of composite metal threads and sequints of the eighteenth and nineteenth century are presented in this article. Among the methods used was the microscopic investigation of the morphology of the threads, the identification of the visual fibers of their nucleus and dye, the electronic inspection {SEM) of the surface morphology and state of preservation of the metal threads, as well as the analysis (AAS) of the chemical composition of the metal materials. The results of the examination and the information drawn facilitate the technical and historical decoding of the textile objects and help the conservator to reach well documented decisions as regards the kind and extension of any intervention. Finally, they give the possibility of controlling the short- and long-term effectiveness and security of the conservation methods applied.

Psychology and Clothing Nikos Tzavaras

The tendency for embellishing and decorating our appearance coexists with and is probably expressed through organic, natural needs, so that clothing declares innermost wishes, submission to general restrictions and symbolic commands. The need of the individual to cover, one way or another, a small part of his/her body is an anthropological commonplace, which, however, refers to an exceptionally important constant factor throughout history. The constitution of a naked human physiognomy is almost unthinkable. Thanks to the attire chosen, the dressed individual is transformed to a composed surface of symbolic signs and at the same time to a projection surface for the observer. Clothing, finally, serves the expansion and formation of communication codes, which surpass the potentialities that the body morphology and the muscular expression offer. The morphology and symbolism of the body are provided by the clothing, the manifestation of cultural conceptions and subjective fantasies. The covering of the body is obviously interwoven with decency, a pivotal feeling for the human psychism and, by expansion, for the individual behavior in a group or in society. Decency, that is, is the nucleus of the very sexual existence, which coexists with the command for its dissimulation or distortion. Therefore, the covering of the genitals is one of the symbolic prerequisites for social coherence and a condition sine qua non for the constitution of the impulsive repression. Decency refers to the socialization of sexuality. It is the feeling through which the moral demands and their conflict with the subjective sexual inclinations are proved. Clothing contributes to the broadening of the expressive potentialities of an individual, because it enriches the standard morphology of the body with a new "vocabulary", through which the intimate inclinations are represented and realized.  

Fashion/History J.-P. Mattera

Through a poetic text, the author of this article attempts to speak about textile and fashion: the very origin of weaving, the sanctity enveloping this ceremonial activity, the evolution of textile that resembles the unfolding of life, the garment that becomes not only a part of the movement, but also of the history of the individual wearing it.

The Unknown History of Modern Athens: The Temporary Housing of Public Services of the New Capital in 1834 Dionysios Roubien

In 1834, when the Greek capital was transferred to Athens, the lack of appropriate buildings for housing public services led to the utilization of edifices, dating from the period before the Revolution of 1821, mainly churches and mosques, even ancient monuments. The sudden arrival of the Regency, settled in the winter in a city lacking the necessary substructure to receive it, can primarily be held responsible for the preservation of the old city and the reuse of the semi-ruined old buildings. As a result, the old urban tissue was urgently reconstructed without, however, any relevant program to have been designed In advance. Thus, the compulsory preservation of edifices that were under demolition became a restraining factor in the realization of the approved town planning. However, besides the public services, the need the abundant antiquities to be sheltered was also imperative, pending the erection of a museum. Therefore, certain churches and the better- preserved ancient monuments were used for storing the ancient works of art. The want of buildings suitable to house the functions of the capital of a modern European state brought to the attention of the officials the few available private mansions, the dimensions and the structure of which could meet such a role. The utilization of all these edifices was not, however, so temporary as it was meant to be at the beginning, therefore extensive restoration and other works were carried on in them, a tangible proof that the permanent buildings would not be available in the near future. The study of the temporary installations of the public services of Athens reveals their compulsory accumulation in the old city as a result of the hasty transfer of the capital and the preservation of the old urban tissue that it caused. Consequently, all the urban activities are again gathered in the same section of the city as in the Ottoman period, a fact which restrained all attempts for the lay-out of the permanent edifices in the new town-planning of the city, in the framework of the creation of a modern European capital.  

Hermes of Ancient Messene: Application of Laser Technology for the Removal of Sediments from White Marble Amerimni Galanou, loanna Dogani, Paraskevi Pouli

A rare marble statue of Hermes was revealed in ancient Messene in 1996, which, although it was found in fragmentary condition, is almost fully preserved. The statue is made of white dolomitic marble, however, when it was found, its surface was almost completely covered by dark-colored sediments. The cleaning of the work was necessary for its aesthetic elevation, so that it could be presented to the public fully restored and recognizable. All the satisfactory methods for handling similar problems were examined before the cleaning of the statue, and the laser method was selected on the basis of its positive properties: although it fully removes the sediments, it leaves intact a thin layer of patina on the thus perfectly restored marble surface. The application of the laser method also revealed important details of the work and the various qualities of its surface, elevated the virtues of the material and soothed the strong color contrasts, The application of laser technology proved to be the only one that combined the capability of the complete control of the device during the cleaning procedure with the respect to all those elements, which compose the authentic "skin" of the statue.

Design Proposals for Open-Air Shrines at Remote Island Coasts in Greece Mit Mitropoulos

This article deals with the question of innovative development within the context of local tradition in Greece and with constructions for re¬mote island sites in particular. However, the emphasis is not on the constructions themselves, but on the deserted sites and the way they can be approached. The constructions belong to three types, lookouts, steps-leading nowhere and open-air shrines, and must be ruled by two major principles: the spiritual dimension of the deserted place -the landscape or the seascape itself-, and the special constraints, dictated by the physiognomy of each construction. These constraints are the following: the site chosen, the shelter capability, the path of the sun and the direction of the prevailing wind. In addition, as regards the open-air shrines type, it must also be taken into consideration that these constructions afford access to their visitors. In terms of policy, it is suggested: a. The opening of motor roads to be avoided, so that the remoteness of chapels/shrines to be preserved, b. Tourist or other relevant developmental facilities that necessitate an access by car to be discouraged, so that the continuity of the natural landscape to remain intact, c. The use of high technology for communal use —medical facilities, educational units, internet-cafe, local administration office— to be encouraged, rather than the countless individual phone connections to be promoted. The aforementioned construction and policy proposals contribute to the cultural survival and the social coherence of the remote Greek islands.  

A discussion of Greek and international experience in archaeology, museums and education Stelios Andreou, Kostas Kotsakis et al.

Communication with the public is the essence of “public archaeology” and museology. It is also important to educational programs for children. In context of the lesson Archaeology and History of Art which is taught at The Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, a discussion took place “on how Greek and European experience in general on modern style education can be applied to the teaching of History and Culture in Primary and Secondary schools” (July 1998-March 2000). Specifications were set for Greek educational programs having to do with museums and archaeology in general. Greek experience on such matters was compared to programs of the same type that have been applied in Great Britain, Germany and France. Alternative approaches to archaeology as experienced by children were also discussed.

Educational archaeology as taught in Greece Kostas Kasvikis, Kleoniki Nikonanou, Eva Fourliga

Research that was done by the Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki (July 1998-March 2000), had as its objective to see to what extent the existing educational programs encourage the building up of the relations between schools and museums. The research also aimed at understanding whether museum specialists and school teachers could work together. The results of the research showed that the museum staff who are currently in charge of educational programs have no teaching experience. On the other hand school teachers are not told of these educational programs and so do not take part in them. Educational archaeology is part of the school program and specifically belongs to the History lesson while the various pamphlets that go with the teaching of History hinder rather than encourage students to take an open-minded approach to archaeology. Guided tours of antiquities, research either recorded by the students or not, and “workshops, ”are part of the Greek programs for educational archaeology which are similar to the French system. The pilot program entitled “Melina-Education and Culture”, saw to the various archaeological departments offering educational information and involved school teachers . In two schools in Thessaloniki, a primary school and a high-school, a pilot scheme was introduced where a group project of archaeological interest involved alternative knowledge, the pupils’ experience of antiquities and so on. In this article tables of the conclusions reached by the research into educational archaeology are presented analytically.

Investigation of the European experience in the application of Educational Cultural Programs to school curriculums Eva Fourlinga, Kleonike Nikonanou, Kostas Kasvikis, Ioulia Gavrieledou

The educational policy of museums and cultural media of Germany, Great Britain and France was looked into by the research team of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in the years 1998 to 2000. A general characteristic of the policy of British museums is the effort made to achieve a direct and effective connection of cultural activities with the national school curriculum. Therefore, although educational programmes are planned by museums, it is the teachers who have the last word in their realization. The German museums’ policy is twofold. The educational departments of German museums plan and realize educational activities which are organized by special services which undertake the educational support of all museums. A close contact is kept with school teachers. In France, the conducted tours of museums for children are combined with workshop activities. French museums usually organize such programmes and school teachers take on a secondary role in these educational activities.  

The Classic in the Movies Stefan Altekamp

About 700 film and television productions deal with the Greco-Roman antiquity, most of them dedicated to the Roman world. However, while in the "Roman" movies the subject derives from historic material, in the "Greek" ones it is rarely based on the history of the classic period, the fifth and fourth centuries BC. On the contrary, it is mostly subjects from the Greek mythology that have been filmed, which have also been used excessively in the theatrical repertoire of the very classic years. Consequently, "the classic in the movies" has to do first with mythological subjects elaborated during the classic era. and then with the projection of the classic era in the movies as a historic phenomenon.

“The Golden Age of Dutch Painting from the Collection of the Dordrecht’s Museum” at the National Gallery and Alexandros Soutzos Museum, Athens: A Brief Commentary Angela Tamvaki

This exhibition marked the fruitful collaboration between I the Greek National Gallery and the Dutch Dordrecht's I Museum, which commenced two years earlier with an-I other similar event entitled "Greek Gods and Heroes in the Age of Rubens and Rembrandt", a significant contribution to an ongoing dialogue about the role of "history painting" in the Netherlands.The Athenian exhibition was a presentation of some of the most spectacular artistic accomplishments of the Dutch Golden Age I through the individual case of one of its main centers: that of Dordrecht, the oldest city of Holland. Curators of both exhibitions were Peter J. Schoon, Director, and Sander Paariberg, Curator of the Dordrecht's Museum, and the author. The show, including 77 items, was divided in six thematic unities and was laid out in the building on two floors: Landscape painting, marine painting, and still life upstairs, genre painting, portraiture and history painting downstairs. Among the painters represented in the exhibition were Rembrandt's distinguished pupils, who left their native Dordrecht in order to study under the great master in Amsterdam: Ferdinand Bol (1616-1680), Samuel van Hoogstraten (1627-1678), Nicolas Maes (1634-1693), and Arent de Gelder (1645-1627). Dordrecht's most fa¬mous landscape painter Albert Cuyp (1620-1691), who led, during the same period, his large retrospective exhi¬bitions in Washington, London and Amsterdam, was rep¬resented by three paintings of his specialization. The presence of two more members of the Cuyp family, the father Jacob Gerritsz. Cuyp (1594-1652) and Benjamin Gerritsz. Cuyp (1612-1652), was also significant, since Jacob was Dordrecht's leading portraitist in the first half of the seventeenth century, while Benjamin received Rembrandt's message in quite an intriguing way. The Dordrecht's Museum also owns exceptional works by a few painters who are not natives of the city, such as Jan van Goyen (1596-1656), Jacob van Gee! (1584/5-1638 or later) or Adriaan Coorte (active around 1683-1707). Finally, a local revival, or rather a return to the values of the Dutch Golden Age, best represented in the works of Abraham (1753-1826) and Jacob van Strij (1756-1815) and Christiaan Schotel (1787-1838) prolonged the artistic flourishing in Dordrecht until, approximately, 1830. A smaller show, consisting of drawings and prints from the Dordrecht's Municipal Archives, which illustrate the city's life and activities in the seventeenth and eigh¬teenth centuries, complemented the main exhibition. The Commercial Bank of Greece, EBFA and EPT sponsored the exhibition and the communication of the event.

The Greek Branch of the International Organization “Restaurateurs Sans Frontieres” Christos Karydis

The Greek branch of the international organization "Restaurateurs Sans Frontieres" is a non-profitable association, having among its immediate goals: a. To restore and preserve cultural monuments, b. to develop and promote not only the monuments but their spiritual content as well, c. to evoke and stimulate public awareness of legacy and its spreading to future generations. The main objectives are: the interest in and awareness of the important role the cultural heritge plays in every society to be increased; and the need for personal involvement in the cause of protecting and preserving this heritage to be fully understood.

Εκπαιδευτικές σελίδες: Mυθικά τέρατα των παραμυθιών: O Mινώταυρος (β΄ μέρος) Μαρίζα Ντεκάστρο

Τεύχος 86, Μάρτιος 2003 No. of pages: 114
Κύριο Θέμα: Aπό το θησαυρό του Aτρέα στο παλάτι του Mενελάου: ο τρόμος της ανωνυμίας στη μυκηναϊκή αρχαιολογία Pascal Darcque

Mινωίτες και Mυκηναίοι στον 20ό αιώνα Alexandre Farnoux

Mινωική Kρήτη: ένας χαμένος παράδεισος; Rene Treuil

Iστοριογραφώντας την προϊστορία του Aιγαίου Όλγα Πολυχρονοπούλου

Οι βασικές αναφορές των πρώτων αρχαιολόγων: ο μύθος θεμελιωτής μιας επιστήμης Όλγα Πολυχρονοπούλου

Η συλλογή προϊστορικών αρχαιοτήτων στην Eλλάδα την εποχή πριν από τον Σλίμαν Μιχάλης Φωτιάδης

H ανακάλυψη των κυκλαδικών ειδωλίων: αξιολογικές παρερμηνείες και αισθητικές καταχρήσεις Βασιλική Χρυσοβιτσάνου

Άλλα θέματα: Tο Oφθαλμιατρείο Aθηνών Μάρω Καρδαμίτση-Αδάμη

Για τη μουσική γεωγραφία των Δελφών Γιώργος Λυκούρας

Nέοι χάρτες και αρχαίοι λαοί της Aνατολικής Mεσογείου Βαγγέλης Πανταζής

H περιοχή της Γκαντάρα Zainul Wahab

Γκαντάρα. Κλιμακωτή κατασκευή από ψαμμόλιθο, με ανάγλυφη παράσταση στην οποία είναι εμφανής η ελληνιστική επίδραση.

Πλουραλισμός και πολυφωνία στον Ίωνα του Eυριπίδη. O Eυριπίδης ως στοχαστής και δραματουργός Κατερίνα Ζαχαρία

H αρχαιολογική φωτογραφία με τη χρήση της νέας τεχνολογίας Νίκος Πουλιανός

Έκθεση και αποθήκευση μουσειακών αντικειμένων. Eπιλογή και χρήση κατάλληλων κατασκευαστικών υλικών Ευγενία Σταματοπούλου

Φωκική Συμπολιτεία Κατερίνα Τυπάλδου-Φακίρη

Aρχαίες οχυρώσεις στην Kεφαλονιά Γεράσιμος Θωμάς

Aρχαίο θέατρο Mεγαλόπολης. Mορφές διάβρωσης και προτάσεις προστασίας Αθανάσιος Καραμπότσος, Βασίλης Λαμπρόπουλος

Μουσείο: Tο Mουσείο του Φώτη Pαπακούση στα Iωάννινα Συντακτική Επιτροπή περιοδικού "Αρχαιολογία"

Ενημερωτικές στήλες και απόψεις: Η βασίλισσα Pωξάνη και η σχέση της με τον προθάλαμο του τάφου II στη Bεργίνα Τριαντάφυλλος Παπαζώης

Aρχαιομετρικά Nέα Γιάννης Μπασιάκος

Πληροφορική: Πηγές για τη διδασκαλία της Αρχαιολογίας στο Διαδίκτυο (1) Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

Αρχαιολογικά Νέα: ειδήσεις, εκθέσεις, συνέδρια, διαλέξεις, βιβλία Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα (επιμ.)

English summaries: Historiography. Writing the history of the prehistoric Aegean Olga Polychronopoulou

In six articles the purpose of historiography is discussed, that is the study of the mechanisms and factors that lie behind the ideas and stereotypes of an era. Before Schliemann, were collectors of Aegean prehistoric antiquities interested in the archaeological nature of their collections? The Cycladic idols that were looked upon with contempt by those who admired the classical ideal were greatly admired by followers of the modern movement at the end of the 19th century. The social and cultural background of Schliemann, Dorpfeld, or Tsountas certainly influenced their archaeological research and various interpretations of it. Why should an archaeologist long to give a Homeric name to a Mycenaean site discovered by him? Evans made up an image of ancient Crete that stood for everything that was the exact opposite of the Victorian ,industrial society of the England he came from. There is also a similarity between Cretan Mycenaean and contemporary art.

Collecting Prehistoric Antiquities in Greece in the Era before Schliemann Michael Fotiadis

The practice of collecting prehistoric artifacts has had a long history in Europe, and the collectors and antiquaries of the 16th-19th centuries are regarded today by many as the precursors of the discipline of prehistoric archaeology, in the circum-Aegean lands such a practice and the associated discourses appear to have emerged much more recently, but they certainly antedate Schliemann's discoveries of the 1870s, and they can be followed back to the early 19th century. In this article I try to reconstruct something of the texture and ethos of that practice and discourses, as they emerge from the writings of archaeologists of the period. It is evident that collecting and the associated discourses had their rules and norms, strategies and tactics, distinctly different from those that would prevail later on in the discipline of Aegean prehistory.

The Discovery of Cycladic Figurines: Evaluative Misinterpretations and Aesthetic Overuses Vassiliki Chryssovitsianou

The first figurines carved on white marble came to light in the late eighteenth century, when P. van Kneney drew attention to their existence and called them "idols" or "figurines". Save the end of the nineteenth century, the European travelers and archaeologists were not system¬atically engaged in the study of figurines; it was only then that the climate started changing, when the first research projects were carried out in the Cyclades by Bent, Dümmler and Tsountas. The aesthetic evaluations of the scholars for this new works of art were expressing their reactions, which could be grouped in three categories: the first shows embarrassment and reserve, the second includes all sorts of negative judgments, the third comprises complex terms and peculiar characterizations. This reserve, aversion and, in some cases, rejection originated from the established conception of “beautiful". The classic ideal did not permit scholars to approach the Cycladic figurines in a different way. This atti¬tude changed in the early twentieth century, when the modern sculptors "adopted" morphological characteristics of the figurines in their creations. Acceptance and recognition came slowly and progressively through the familiarity of the specialists with these "primitive" art forms, which in the 60s led archaeologists to typology. This formalistic method of classification and evaluation prevailed throughout the post-war years, and thus the "peculiar", "incomplete", "ugly", "primitive" statuettes were transformed and began to be considered as fine works of art.

Myth: The Founder of a Science Olga Polychronopoulou

The birth of the Aegean prehistory is indissolubly connected with the Homeric epos and the Greek mythology, since the first archaeological research in the area was aiming at the verification of the historic truth comprised in the ancient texts and myths. However, the col¬lation of the Homeric world with the tangible relics led to the discovery of two, unknown so far, prehistoric civilizations, the Mycenean and the Northeastern Aegean one. In the era of Romanticism, Homer as well as the classic antiquity and the East are the baste points of reference for the pioneers of the Aegean prehistoric archaeology. The conception of Homer by H. Schliemann is not the result of a unique inspiration, but the consequence of scientific and cultural tendencies of his earlier or contemporary colleagues, distinguished in various, however relevant, fields, such as folklore and comparative mythology, which were especially developed in Germany during Schliemann's period. W. Dörpfeld, on the contrary, Schliemann's assistant in Troy and Tiryns, was more affected by classic archaeology, especially in the early years of his career. After the establishment of Otto's dynasty in 1833, Greece became the most rewarding field for the German scholars, philologists in their majority, who initiated a new era in the archaeological research. Dörpfeid's participation in the Olympia excavations had such an impact, that classic archaeology became a model for the interpretation of the prehistoric remnants of Troy and Tiryns. The reference of building ruins or site remnants to a Homeric or mythological framework has become an unquestionable reality in the case of the Aegean prehistory, while the discovery of Homeric cities and palaces remains a fascinating event even today.

The Treasure of Atreus in the Palace of Menelaus: The Terror of Anonymity in Mycenean Archaeology Pascal Darcque

From Pausanias time until today travelers, specialists and archaeologists continue to give names and to add prestige to the archaeological remnants that date from the second half of the second millennium B.C.. Most of these names are loans from the Iliad and Odyssey. The standard repetition of the phenomenon probably sug­gests that we believe even today in the complete his­toricity of the epic texts and myths. The archaeologists dealing with the Aegean world have often been nour­ished with the classic tradition to such an extent, that they quite easily pass from the archaeological evidence to the myths, because there is a continuity of data from the present to the past in their minds and culture. However, the existence of a city called “Troy” continues to have an untenable historical support and scientific reasoning, while the Homeric texts cannot be taken as testimonies for the Mycenaean age. Next to these scientific reasons, which prompt cer­tain archaeologists and historians to accept the epic or mythical accounts, the terror of anonymity can equally be explained by the prestige accompanying this or that name of a site. To pull an archaeological discovery out of anonymity and oblivion means that whoever achieves this task not only will become famous among his col­leagues, but he win also be praised by a broader public which still lives with the ideal that it is the Archaeologist who sets off to discover lost cities and he succeeds in his objective. Therefore, we must accept that our effort the Mycenaean place-names to coincide with those of the historic period is often a dangerous task. In addition, we must not forget that there is not any Mycenaean text supplying the name of a single Mycenaean lord. What seems, then, reasonable is to hope that the new texts of the Linear B script will enrich our knowledge about Mycenaean Greece.

Minoan Crete: A Paradise Lost René Treuil

In revealing Crete to the West, Evans pictured an ideal land: nature was wonderful, with a rich vegetation and welcoming atmosphere, an entity inspiring the artistic creation, while Minoan society, affected by nature, was peaceful, harmonious and feministic in a way; as a result, civilization was splendid in every aspect, and art, luxury and joy governed the Minoan world. This idyllic description ascribed Crete to the series of lost paradises, where humanity experienced a kind of Gold Age, according to various myths, which have as a common motif the contrast to the present. As a matter of fact, Evans created this picture of Crete in order to contradict the Victorian industrial and bourgeois England. This model, which replaced the standard model of classic Greece, was fed by Evans' sensitivity towards nature, landscape, flowers and birds, while at the same time it was supported by a sort of rejection of the pre¬sent: rich and idle, Evans never found his proper place in society, and the wars, which he witnessed, carried him further away from the present. Therefore, he turned to another world, exotic and fascinating, whom he formed as he desired, and who would be incarnated in the palace of Knossos. Evans' vision was criticized, but it was finally imposed on Crete and on the occasion of Crete. The effect of the discovery, the composing ability of Evans, his knowledge of journalism, his dominating stature, the expectations of the public, all contributed to this success, where viewpoint was more important than science. From then on superlative was praised and anachronism marked more and more the picture of Minoan Crete, while a guided public kept asking reassurance for the very same issues. One hundred years later, however, this picture must be reevaluated, the history of the ideas must be restored and, most important, the radical differentiation between this picture and the historic reality must be achieved. The picture must be submitted to the trial of doubt and criticism and must leave space for new research, which will give new answers not to the same eternal questions, but to others, which have not been raised as yet. Let us wonder, if such a revision of the picture can possibly be attempted on Crete itself.

Minoans and Mycenaeans in the Twentieth Century Alexandre Farnoux

The discovery of the Aegean civilizations of the Bronze Age caused an exchange between the Creto-Mycenaean art and the twentieth-century artistic production. This was a two-way exchange: for example, the European artists were inspired by the forms and the repertoire of the pre¬historic creators, while so much in architecture and furniture as much in theatre the modern construction techniques (reinforced concrete, bricks etc.) contributed to the reconstruction and "revival" of many ancient monu¬ments and works of art, as for instance the palace of Knossos, not to mention the esthetic issues concerning Art Nouveau and Arts and Crafts that elevated the Minoan masters as contemporaries of Morris and Guimard. This two-way effect becomes obvious in a plethora of examples, especially in France, where between 1905 and 1930 a real “Cretomania" is manifested: in literature, theatre and cinema as well as in the decorative motives embellishing the Art Nouveau ceramics the reference to the Minoans and Mycenaeans is easily recognizable. The fake industry also indicates the passion for the art then called pre-Hellenic and therefore non classic: an art very much suitable to a period which, while was rejecting academism, was getting more than enthusiastic with whatever was pioneering and innovating. Thus, it will not be a paradox if we say that the Creto-Mycenaean art is related with the art of the early twentieth century.

New maps and the ancient peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean Vangelis Pantazis

The way we hang up maps, that is North up and South down, a consensus regarded as a natural fact, conveys the subconscious but firm idea that the countries of the North lie higher than the countries of the South and that the people of the North are superior to those of the South. In the writings of the historians, linguists and archaeologists of the last century who formed a still effective viewpoint regarding the origins of the ancient Greek civilization, this world image is traceable and quite eloquent: southward movements are described as “downward”. According to the laws of gravity, conquerors always descend from “on high” from the manly North, flooding and submerging the swampy, passive, effeminate South. This world image has been decisive in the interpretation of philological, historical and archaeological finds concerning the relations of the Minoan with the Mycenaean civilization, as well as the provenance of the ancient Greek “nation”. Even before the Linear B script was deciphered, it was already known that the ancient Greek language consisted of two layers, one Indo-European and one not Indo-European. Under the influence of the notions mentioned before, the first, the “higher” layer which was characterized as the more purely “Greek” was attributed to the Indo-Europeans who descended from the North, while the second layer, the “pre-Hellenic” was assigned to the non Indo-European native population which was naturally under the authority of the first. However, the semantic analysis of the two lingual layers show that the terminology of the dominant layer, “άναξ” (=lord), “βασιλεύς”(=king), “ξίφος”(= sword), “θώραξ”(=cuirass), “χιτών”(=robe), “χρυσός”(=gold), is not Indo-European. This fact is also confirmed by the deciphering of the Linear B script, and reinforces Evans’ theory of the suzerainty of the “Minoans” over the already Greek-speaking Peloponnese, and also on the Minoan roots of the Mycenaean civilization, a theory rejected in haste in the light of the influence of the cartographic consensus mentioned at the beginning of this article.

The Gandhara Area Zainub Wahab

The Gandhara area is mentioned for the first time in the Rig-veda, the oldest sacred book of the Aryans who arrived at the valley of the River Indus around 1500 B.C., as well as in the Achaememan inscriptions of the sixth to fifth century B.C. In both sources this area is described as a wealthy Achaemenian satrapy, which, not only was paying a high tribute, but also was supplying the Iranian army with armed corps. The Chinese pilgrims, who unanimously place the Gandhara area to the west of the River Indus, call it Kien-to-lo. It is namely the district surrounded by the Lagman region and the city of Djata-labad to the west, the Souat and Bouner hills to the north, the River Indus to the east and Kalabag hills to the south. These same boundaries were enclosing many famous sites of ancient Pakistan, some of which are renowned due to the deeds of Alexander the Great, while others are celebrated thanks to the writings of the Chinese pilgrims.

The ancient theatre of Megalopolis. Proposals for the theatre’s protection from various forms of erosion A. Karabotsos, V. Lambropoulos

According to the famous ancient Greek traveller Pausanias, the ancient Greek theatre of Megalopolis was the biggest in the Greek territories. It had a diameter of 126 metres and a capacity of 21.000 persons and it probably accommodated the meeting of the Common of the Arcadians. The architectural parts of the theatre are built with whitish, sedimentary limestone, while the surrounding walls of the edifice to the east and west are made of stone. Agents such as water, atmospheric conditions and the microclimate have caused alterations in the building materials, changes in colour, composition, natural properties and so on. The conservation practices proposed are cleaning of depositions, salt removal from stone surface, treatment of the theatre’s foundations to make them waterproof and durable. In addition consolidation of building materials is proposed, as well as restoration of broken architectural parts, reconstruction of surrounding walls and compulsory use of suitable filters by the factories of Megalopolis.

Choosing Construction Materials for the Exhibition and Storage of Museum Objects Eugenia Stamatopoulou

The construction materials (wood, paper, textile, varnishes, pigments, synthetic membranes and foamy rubber) used for the exhibition and storage of the museum collections may function as factors of serious damage of the sensitive items. Lists of materials and the sort and extension of ero¬sion that may cause as well as the groups of the sensitive museum collections are presented in this article, while the proper construction materials that must be chosen and used are mentioned. Finally, solutions are given for the restoration and upgrading of the storage and exhibition systems of the museum objects, aiming at the partial or total elimination of the damage, which may be caused to these objects by unsuitable construction materials.

Archaeological Photography and New Technology Nikos Poulianos

The documentation of the scientific data through visual representation is necessary in the modern scientific methodology. In the archaeognostic sciences in particular, such as archaeology, geoarchaeology, palaeoan-thropology, palaeontology etc, all the representational methods are applied. The most appropriate ways for representing and documenting the archaeological data are photography and videotaping. The latter is coming off rather simply, the photos, however, that can be taken are of a low analysis, therefore they do not have the dis-tinctiveness necessary for the presentation and publication of the data. Photography, on the contrary, offers all the technical qualities, prerequisites for presentation and publication and, although it is a more complex procedure that videotaping, it does not require any particular specialization. In any case, if the photos can be taken by a professional photographer, the quality of the result is usually much higher. In action, however, as regards in situ surveys, excavations and/or photographing of finds, the employment of such a specialist is difficult and is also considered a luxury due to the high cost and to the close cooperation with the archaeologist it entails, since only a few photographers know "the correct angle for photographing archaeological items". Therefore, the ordinary but efficient documentation of the excavationai data through photography, an indispensable means for archaeologists, is now much easier, if one uses the new digital technology of computers.

Ancient Fortifications in the Kefalonia Island Gerasimos Thomas

Kefalonia, the largest of the Ionian Islands, laying on the exit of the Patraikos Bay, has been already since antiquity an important naval station for the ships travelling to Sicily, South Italy and the adriatic coast. The natural forti¬fications of the island, created by the land morphology and the high relief of the ground, has successfully been exploited by the natives already since antiquity. The human presence on Kefalonia is dated from around 50,000 B.C.( while the first organized settlement is placed in the first half of the second millennium. According to Thucydides, the island was a Terra-polis (= had four cities) and was divided in four cities-states, namely Pale, Krane, Same and Pronnous. The strong rivalry and hostility governing their relations from the fifth century B.C. on, and especially during the fourth and third century, led to the construction of extensive fortresses, sections of which have survived until today. However, the powerful fortifications did not hold back the Romans, who managed to occupy Same in 187 B.C. and to use the island as a naval base for their war operations.

The Phocian Confederation Katerina Typaldou-Fakiri

Ancient Phocis played a very important role in the history of ancient Greece, not only because of its vicinity to the famous sanctuary of Delphi, which it originally owned, but also because of its geographical position. In the begin¬ning of the sixth century B.C., after the first sacred war, Phocis lost the sanctuary of Delphi and was occupied by the Thessalians. Soon after their liberation in the end of the same century the Phocian cities allied in a confederation aiming at the recovery of the sanctuary of Delphi and at their independence. However, the efforts of the Phocians to regain the celebrated sanctuary caused two more sacred wars with unfortunate implications for them: they were submitted to Philippe of Macedonia, were excluded from the Deiphic amphictyony and were forced to pay each year a heavy indemnity for the precious offerings of the sanctuary they had plundered during the third war. The hostility between Phocians and Macedonians continued, and they had several fierce confrontations in the battlefield during the third and second century B.C. Until their final submission to the Romans, the Phocians managed to preserve somehow their independence by remaining united and by keeping their confederation quite powerful, whenever a political issue would arise.

The Musical Geography of Delphi George Lykouras

In this article the ancient musical ratios, that is the musi¬cal fractions still alive in the musical tradition of Greece, the Balkans and Eastern Mediterranean, are related to the geographical data of ancient sites. Thus, the musical intervallic constants also form geographical con¬stants and represent the marginal relation between day and night during the summer solstice, which was determining the geographical latitude of each location. For example, for Babylon this relation was 3/2 (three parts day and two parts night during the solstice of June 21st), for Cyzicus 5/3 (15 hours day and 9 hours night), while for Alexandria it was 7/5 (14 hours day and 10 hours night). Furthermore, it is quite probable that already since the second millennium B.C. it was known the ratio of the perfect "fourth" 4/3, which represents the geographical latitude of the Egyptian Thebes. The ratio between day and night for Delphi, having a geographical latitude 38o 35', coincides with the har¬monic ratio of the golden mean, which justifies the name of the site "omphalos". In Delphi the duration of day on June 21st is 14 hours and 50' and that of night 9 hours and 10'. This ratio, which also represents the symbolism Apollo-Dionysus, is the golden ratio (1,61808...). An analogous interpretation can be applied to the meridian of important ancient sites, on the basis of the difference of sunrise and sunset in two locations. In this way the position of Delphi in the omphalos of Europe is warranted, since its location is in reality the golden mean of the solar distance between the Atlantic of the Hesperides and Atlas and the Caucasus of Prometheus.

The Eye-Hospital of Athens Maro Kardamitsi-Adami

The great number of Greek captives that Governor Capodistrias brought back from the labor markets of Egypt, in combination with the bad hygiene conditions prevailing in the first years after the liberation of Greece from the Turks, created a fertile environment for the contagion and spreading of trachoma. Thus, as a large segment of the population was threatened with blindness, an emergency situation was created for the foundation of a hospital, specialized in ophthalmologic diseases. Thus, a special committee was established in 1843 with main objective the erection of the hospital and, therefore, the necessary fund-raising. The plans of the building, which stands today on the junction of Panepistimiou Avenue with Sina Street, were commissioned to the Danish architect Christian Hansen: he produced two different series of drawings, one in Neoclassic style, the other, to be finally realized, according to the wishes of Ludwig of Bavaria, in Neobyzantine style. The official inauguration ceremony of the hospital took place on June 14th, 1854. The increasing need of space led to the addition of a storey to the Eye-Hospital in 1860 and to the erection of a new building at the back of the existing one in 1914. The hospital was functioning effectively for a few years, when in 1930 the then assistant Professor Charamis declared that the building would not be able to meet for long the constantly rising demand. This viewpoint was supported in the post-war years by professor Kosmetatos, who also proposed the selling of the edifice. However, the issue remained in suspense, and thus the small, elegant building of Panepistimiou Avenue stands even today in place. A new function, suitable to its dimensions and space layout, can preserve it for many years to come.  

Plurality of Discourses in Euripides’ Ion Katerina Zacharia

This paper discusses a general problem in Euripidean poetics starting from a feature of the Ion. In that play there is a curious juxtaposition of contrasting pairs that run through the very core of the play. Euripides has arranged the plot-construction in a series of doublets, which, I argue, express the very substance of the play itself, as is shown by the fact that, beyond these individual structural repetitions, the thematics of the play as a whole is characterized by doubling and repetition at every level. Also, more profoundly, this arrangement in doublets is a way of representing reality; the dramatist wants to signal the co-existence of different perspectives of vision, without supplying a clear-cut answer. In the Ion, Euripides is ultimately inquiring into the nature of the Athenian civic ideology and the value and limitations of the Athenian achievement. In the gradually deepening and ultimately overwhelming crisis of the Peloponnesian War, Euripides is asking how Athens became what it was and what it has to remember about itself, if it is to continue to survive. The arrangement in doublets is related to but is not identical with another feature of Euripidean drama, namely the assignment to his characters of speeches that seem to betray consciousness of contemporary rhetorical techniques, beyond what is to be expected of these legendary characters. This Euripidean practice of offering contrasting speeches on a single important issue has often been remarked upon by scholars who have connected it with the sophistic interest in rhetoric which is so conspicuous a feature of the Athenian culture in Euripides' day. For this sophistic context, the plurality of discourses is necessarily linked with the un-knowability of reality. For Euripides, on the other hand, I suggest matters are different. For the dramatist, truth is not unattainable, but can only be approximated via this very plurality of discourses. Here I explore some concepts of Mikhail Bakhtin's literary theory for indicating how Euripides is different both from his tragic colleagues and from his sophistic contemporaries. Euripidean truth is not contradictory or ambiguous; it requires two or more voices and his plays precisely "embody" this dialogical vision of truth.

Εκπαιδευτικές σελίδες: Η Λάμια Μαρίζα Ντεκάστρο

Τεύχος 87, Ιούνιος 2003 No. of pages: 122
Κύριο Θέμα: Σύντομη ιστοριογραφία της αρχαιολογίας του τοπίου Michèle Brunet

O Kλεμανσό, η Eλλάδα και η ελληνική αρχαιολογία Roland Etienne, Francoise Etienne

O W. Deonna και η αρχαιολογική επιστήμη Alexandre Farnoux

Oι αρχιτέκτονες και οι απαρχές της ελληνικής αρχαιολογίας Marie-Christine Hellmann

H γέννηση της σύγχρονης αρχαιολογίας Philippe Jockey

H σύγχρονη αρχαιολογία σε «πράξεις». H εποχή των μεγάλων ανασκαφών Philippe Jockey

Kαταστρέφοντας αρχαιότητες «χάριν συμφερόντων των ζώντων» Θανάσης Καλπαξής

Iστοριογραφώντας την κλασική αρχαιότητα Όλγα Πολυχρονοπούλου

Άλλα θέματα: Στρατηγικές επιβίωσης στην αρχαιότητα: υιοθεσία, δουλεία, «παραμονή» Κώστας Μαντάς

Oι ιστορικές διαδρομές της Aθήνας: η συμβολή τους στο περιβάλλον και τη φυσιογνωμία της πόλης Παναγιώτης Παταργιάς, Μαρία Δανιήλ, Αλέξανδρος Πουλούδης, Ζέττα Αντωνοπούλου

Tάφοι λαξευμένοι στο βράχο και τελετουργίες στη γη των Kικόνων Σταύρος Δ. Κιοτσέκογλου

Θρησκεία και αρχιτεκτονικές επεμβάσεις στα οικοδομήματα των ιερών Πέτρος Ράδης

Tο κτήριο του παλαιού Kακουργιοδικείου Βηθλεέμ Σαννίου-Παττακού

Xρονολόγηση ενετικών οχυρώσεων του κάστρου της Mεθώνης Παναγιώτης Φουτάκης

Μουσείο: Mουσείο Aστυπάλαιας Μαρία Μιχαλάκη-Κόλλια

Ενημερωτικές στήλες και απόψεις: Aρχαιομετρικά Nέα Γιάννης Μπασιάκος

Αρχαιολογικά Νέα: ειδήσεις, εκθέσεις, συνέδρια, διαλέξεις, βιβλία Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα (επιμ.)

Από το Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology, τεύχος 15/1 (2002) Σοφία Αντωνιάδου

Πληροφορική: Πηγές για τη διδασκαλία της Αρχαιολογίας στο Διαδίκτυο (2) Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

English summaries: The historiography of classical antiquity Olga Polychronopoulou

The great excavations on the sites of Heraclea and Pompei (1738) and the scientific mission to Egypt (1798) mark the beginning of the archaeology of our times. In the 18th century, together with the fashion of travelling to the Orient came the architects who mapped, painted and drew antiquities. Georges Clemenceau, the statesman and Hellenist took a lively interest in the French excavations at Delos and Delphi. The founding of the foreign Schools of archaeology in Athens and the great excavations make evident the conflicts that occured between the foreign policy and archaeology of the time. The Swiss archaeologist Waldemar Deonna remained in obscurity because he never conformed with the stereotypes of someone in charge of an excavation. Landscape was promoted to a cultural heritage and this caused archaeologists to conform with the science of “Human Geography”. The question arises what are the factors that would allow for those in charge of antiquities to condone the destruction of those very same antiquities?

The Birth of Modern Archaeology Philippe Jockey

Curiously enough, although archaeology is a "science" referring to the past, it has been formed in modern times. Neither antiquity nor the Middle Ages, apart from certain amazing exceptions, have recognized its real value, probably because of its origins. The monuments of the past sometimes have been considered as sacred others as diabolic, in any case they have been characterized with a quality or property. During the quatrocen-to, and especially according to the theory of Cyriacus of Ancona, they are regarded as seals of history. The collection of curiosa or the heterogeneous piling up of items in the cabinet de curiosités in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries paved the way for the enthronement of the later archaeology in three stages during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: The exploration of Herculaneum and Pompeii, the expedition to Egypt and the omnipotence of prehistory, which was taken, however not without a fight, from the clergy. Thus, being in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the era of the great excavations could finally commence.

The Architects and the Origins of Greek Archaeology Mane-Christine Hellmann

The second half of the eighteenth and the entire nineteenth century represent a true golden era for the architects who were also considered archaeologists. They could, therefore, organize all sorts of expeditions, primarily oriented towards the collection of Greek works of art, which could be used as models for the neo-classical constructions in Europe. This tendency was gradually followed by excavations, aiming not only to the discovery of famous monuments and sites, but also to their study and publication with perfect scientific methodology. These architects were primarily interested in temples, of which they pursued to retrace their origin and evolution. After the foundation of the French Archaeological School and the German Archaeological Institute of Athens, the architects continued to play an important part in the great excavations. Through their work in Greece as well as in Asia Minor and South Italy they essentially contributed in forming the canon of the orders and made the ancient Greek religious architecture widely known. This article deals with certain remarkable personalities among them.

Clemenceau, Greece and Greek Archaeology Françoise Etienne, Roland Etienne

In 1907, initiating a series of lectures organized by the French Union for the Defense of the Rights of Hellenism, its President, Theophile Homolle, a former director of the French School of Athens and a prominent archaeologist, paid tribute to "the ardent philhellene and intellectual" Georges Clemenceau, who, being a premier at the time, was unable to attend to that meeting. This aspect of the personality of one of the most celebrated French politicians remains rather obscure. We know that Clemenceau had a classical education -he was awarded a prize in Greek translation and history, when he was eleven years old!-, he admired ancient Greece and was the author of a Life of Demosthenes, as well as that after the victory of 1918, he became a fervent supporter of the settlement of Greeks in Smyrna, Asia Minor. Our knowledge, however, is limited as regards his participation in the just causes of modern Hellenism, and we ignore in general that he was so passionate with archaeology that he could intervene in the deliberations of experts or could finance the excavations in Boetia, for which he was always well informed, despite of the burden of his state responsibilities. Clemenceau was seized by a true philhellenic patriotism, as his controversial choices and progressive gushes prove. He not only approved of the destruction of the Frankish tower and the Turkish minaret on the Athenian Acropolis, but he could even have eagerly added to these "the ignoble pedestal of Agrippa, a monument of the Roman barbarity". We must forgive these "mistakes" of his, since, at the same time he personified the just causes for the return of the Parthenon marbles and the restoration of the Acropolis monuments.

Modern Archaeology in “Acts”: The Era of the Great Excavations Philippe Jockey

The development of great excavations in Greece, starting from the last quarter of the nineteenth century, serves as a good example of the apple of discord, generated by archaeology among the European powers. It was absolutely fair and just that the Modern Greek nation wished to base its identity on and to certify its relation with its ancient past by revealing its archaeological heritage. At the same time, the rivalry of the then Great Powers created in Greece a new battle field, through the dominance and excavation of "sites-beacons", such as Delphi. Thus, in order the opponents to be surpassed, it became decisive and urgent that more and more finds to be discovered or impressive building reconstructions to be erected. These "deeds" would not only testify for the range of the work accomplished, but they would also reveal the efficiency and potency of the performer to both, friends and enemies.

W. Déonna and the Science of Archaeology Alexandre Farnoux

The history of archaeology is in vogue today, and this rising interest is expressed in many ways: Biographies, monographs, narration, analyses etc, not to mention congresses, seminars and round tables focusing on this subject, that make it more and more successful. This new archaeological tendency affects classical archaeology as well. The return to the past is usually the opportunity for a critical examination of the works of our predecessors, as regards the choice of a reconstruction or the prejudices of a representation, which seem to the modern expert as being out-of-date. However, the history of archaeology in itself does not elude criticism. On the one hand, it is fascinating to observe its development, when theoretical archaeology, so alive between the years 1960 and 1980, is shaky and cannot easily escape anymore from the limited circle of initiates. On the other hand, it shapes a concept of archaeology that can be questioned, since it concerns the history of a profession and its characteristics, such as the exploration and investigation of a site from the first travelers who visited the area to the first scholars who excavated it. In this way, all archaeologists who are not excavators or to whom excavations are not their primary concern are excluded. Thus, authentic archaeologists remain in the shadow, their only fault being that they defended an archaeology which is not our concern or whose work, although exceptionally interesting, seems today inappropriate for exploitation Waldemar Déonna is one of them.

A Brief Historiography of Landscape Archaeology Michèle Brunet

Landscape archaeology is finally older than it seems: The great scientific expeditions of the nineteenth century, such as the Moreas expedition, realized combined geographical and archaeological research. At the same time, it remains undeniable that the archaeology of the rural areas was developed in the 60s and 70s throughout Europe, owing much to the general consciousness that landscape and environment also belong to the cultural heritage, on equal terms with monuments.

Destroying Antiquities “for the Benefit of the Living” Thanasis Kalpaxis

There is a number of cases where the destruction of antiquities is performed with the consent of archaeologists or the services to which their protection has been entrusted. This contradiction has a long history. One of the factors that badly affected the issue were the building and reconstruction permits, issued on the occasion of past Olympic Games in Athens. Among the most striking examples is the restoration of the Panathenaic Stadium for the Games of 1896 and the erection of the Zappeion Mansion for the Olympia of 1874. In the first case the possibility for excavation research, which could probably clarify the earlier building phases of the edifice was sacrificed. As a result a stadium was built, the form of which did not correspond to the known architecture of antiquity. In the second case a Roman bath was permanently covered with earth, before even it was studied, and thus its total extent and its relation to the other buildings of the city remained unknown forever. In conclusion, the arguments expressed between supporters and opponents on the issue of the destruction of antiquities did not succeed to shape an effective theoretical basis for handling this problem.

Rock-carved Tombs and Rituals in the Land of Cicones Stavros D. Kiotsekoglou

The cult of the sun was spread in Thrace during the last phase of the Bronze Age. The countless schematic representations of the sun, carved on the Palaeokastro rock, in Petrota of Rodope and in Nipsa of Evros, in combination with Makrobius' information regarding the existence of a cyclical temple with a central roof opening on the Zilmissos hill, reveal the affiliation of this Dionysiac sanctuary with the cult of the sun, a deity related both with the god of vegetation and that of the kingdom of the dead. The carved tombs of Thrace, or the conchs on the mountain rocks, eastwards orientated so as to catch the beneficial sunbeams, are monuments expressing the belief of the Thracians in the immortality of the soul. In addition, they were serving as the last dwelling of kings and leaders, they symbolized the unification of the solar and chthonic cult and were centers of ritual offerings and cult. Close to Boz-tepe, just six kilometers away from the village Avantas in the Alexandroupofis province, three tombs have been carved on the east, northeast and north side of an isolated rock. The first comprises one vertical and two transverse conchs, each having a different function: the central one was purposed for the placement of the dead, the second for offerings, the third probably for offerings or libations or even for bloody sacrifices. An oblong slab was closing the entrance of the tomb neatly and tightly. Two more elongated, spacious conchs for burials have been carved on the north and northeast side of the rock; they are surrounded by smaller openings, appropriate for the placement of offerings.

Dating the Venetian Fortifications at the Castle of Modon Panagiotis Foutakis

From the Greek and Roman age to the Byzantine era and from the Venetian domination to the Ottoman Empire, Modon has been a commercial and military crossroads of varying importance, depending on the historic period. It reaches its climax in the years of the Venetian rule, when most of its fortifications are erected Surprising enough, the military architecture of the castle has not been dated as yet. This article puts an end to this lack and offers precious new conclusions about the fortress of Modon, which has played an important role in the history of the Mediterranean.

Religion and Architectural Interventions in the Edifices of Sanctuaries Petros Radis

The analysis of the interventions (restorations, transformations etc.) performed in ancient edifices presents further difficulties, when sacred buildings are concerned, since their relation with a deity is an additional factor, which can affect the undertaking of the necessary works. This factor alone or in combination with others (political, financial etc.), but always in close relation with the practical indispensability of an intervention, has a different importance and impact in each case. When it can affect the decision for the undertaking of the work, then it sometimes has a positive influence on the works by speeding them up or a negative one, which leads to the postponement or even the cancellation of the project.

Giovanni d’Athanasi, the Lemnian (1798-1854). His role in the discovery of antiquities in Egypt during the first half of the nineteenth century B.I. Chryssikopoulos

This article deals with the life and work of Ioannis Athanasiou from Lemnos, the historical island that lies across the sea from the Homeric Ilion. Ioannis Athanasiou, also known as Giovanni d’Athanasi or Yanni, was not only active as an interpreter but is mainly known as excavator of antiquities in Egypt, in the area of Thebes in particular, during the first half of the nineteenth century. In 1816 he entered the service of H. Salt, the English Consul General in Egypt, who for a number of years entrusted to the loyal Greek his excavations, mainly those around Thebes. Athanasiou discovered tombs of noblemen and kings of the Pharaonic Egypt and saw to the enrichment of his employer’s collection. Among his more important discoveries, or dicoveries in which his role was essential, are the tobs of Ramses II, in all probability Amenophis III, Ramses VII and Sethos I, as well as those of many other illustrious members of the ruling class of ancient Egypt. Athanasiou also participated in the opening of Ramses II’s tomb in Abu Sibel and in excavations around the Giza pyramids. The industrious Greek was known to all the distinguished travellers of the time as it becomes obvious from their personal diaries. Their enthusiastic references to the young Yanni is the result not only of his insight, but also of his friendliness, virtues and qualities that made him a reliable personality in the eyes of his contemporary international community in Egypt.

The Building of the Old Criminal Court Bethlehem Sanniou-Pattakou

The building of the old Criminal Court in the Psyrri area in Athens is a rare specimen of public nineteenth-century architecture. It was erected around 1837, according to the plans of Christian Hansen, on the ruins of the post-Byzantine church of Hagia Eleousa, in order to house properly the Criminal Court in the new capital of the Greek state. The building, which has been declared conservable in 1974, is a two-storied, stone-build edifice, roofed with Byzantine tiles that lay on well-preserved and interesting in structure timber trusses. It consists of a central, higher part and two lateral, recessing ones. Its austere facades reflect the spirit of the early Neoclassicism and maintain its original decoration. The east part of the monument preserves the tripartite form of the bema of Hagia Eleousa, while the areas of the Prothesis and Diakonikon are in exceptionally good condition (hidden as they were for over 150 years behind shallow Neoclassical niches) and display pointed arches, sealed passages leading to the central part of the bema and traces of wall-paintings. Furthermore, on its west part a thick post-Byzantine wall, formed by pillars and pointed arches, is incorporated in the masonry of the Neoclassical ground floor. Thus, both monuments, the post-Byzantine and the Neoclassical, are projected, been wisely incorporated into a harmonic ensemble.

The Historic Route of Athens. Their Contribution to the Environment and Physiognomy of the City Maria Daniel, Panagiotis A. Patargias, Alexandros Pouloudis, Z. Antonopoulou

The conduct of the Olympic Games in Athens in August of 2004 is a unique opportunity for the upgrading of the urban environment of the city. In this framework, the elevation of the physiognomy of Athens, the smarting up of its contemporary building tissue and the upgrading and projection of its cultural deposits through their incorporation in the everyday function of the city-, appear as urgent priorities. Therefore, to the main cultural endeavor of the capital towards this direction belongs the recently attempted unification of the basic cultural poles of Athens, which can be reached through the historic route of the city: starting from the Ardettos Hill, it passes by the Olympeion, the Acropolis slopes, the Philopappos Hill, the Ancient and the Roman Agora, the Theseum temple and terminates to the area of the ancient cemetery of Kerameikos, the third historical square of the city, according to the original plan of the Greek capital, drawn by Kleanthis and Schaubert in 1833. It is known that the rest of Athens is characterized by a plethora of Neoclassical, Byzantine and other edifices of distinct character and works of art, an assembly of monuments that coexists with a variety of ancient historical architecture and sculpture. The elevation and projection of the aforementioned cultural elements in homogeneous groups can offer the possibility so that a wide spectrum of cultural units to be exhibited, units which will express the historical significance and the cultural tradition of the City of Democracy, Science, Art, Athletics and Civilization. There is no doubt that such a great enterprise will lead to the adoption and realization of the notion that the surrounding area of a monument or a work of art also needs the same attention as the work of art itself.

Strategies of Survival in Antiquity: Adoption, Slavery, “Paramoni” Kostas Mantas

The hard reality in every pre-industrial society obliged its members to act and behave in a way, which we would regard today as inhuman, although selective sterilization or abortion are common practices in the modern Western world as well. The survival of the elderly in antiquity was depending on the possession of slaves who looked after them instead of their children. Therefore, it is not surprising that in numerous liberation inscriptions the slaves are bound to stay with their former master or an aged relative of him until the latter would die. For the members of the elite the adoption, of boys in particular, as well as the institutions of marriage between close relatives and of concubine were representing various strategies of survival.

Εκπαιδευτικές σελίδες: Mυθικά τέρατα των παραμυθιών: Η Σφίγγα και άλλα τέρατα για να τρομάζουν τους μεγάλους Μαρίζα Ντεκάστρο

Τεύχος 88, Σεπτέμβριος 2003 No. of pages: 114
Κύριο Θέμα: H βυζαντινή Eλλάδα στη γαλλική λογοτεχνία Sophie Basch

Bυζάντιο και ιστοριογραφία Χριστίνα Αγγελίδη

Γυναίκες και Bυζάντιο. Mια επισκόπηση της έρευνας μετά το 1970 Χριστίνα Αγγελίδη

Συναίνεση με τη βυζαντινή ιστοριογραφία: η ειρωνεία Ηλίας Αναγνωστάκης

Bυζαντινή Aρχαιολογία. Aνάμεσα στην αρχαιολογική προσέγγιση των καταλοίπων της μεσαιωνικής εποχής και την Iστορία της Bυζαντινής Tέχνης Όλγα Γκράτζιου

H μελέτη του Bυζαντίου στη νεότερη Eλλάδα Τόνια Κιουσοπούλου

Άλλα θέματα: Mουσεία και παγκοσμιοποίηση Γεωργία Κακούρου-Χρόνη

Oδοιπορικό στο βυζαντινό κάστρο της Zίχνας Κωνσταντίνος Κετάνης

O κίονας ως σύμβολο του Xριστού σε έργα βυζαντινής τέχνης Μαρία Ευαγγελάτου

Oι προϊστορικές έρευνες στην Hμαθία. Παλιά και νέα δεδομένα (A΄ Mέρος) Νίκος Μερούσης, Λιάνα Στεφανή

Nεότερα αστικά και λαϊκά ρόπτρα Μάνος Μικελάκης

Oι ιόνιοι γείτονες της Δυτικής Aκαρνανίας. Tα νησιά Kάλαμος και Kαστός Αφέντρα Μουτζάλη

Aισθητικές ποιότητες στην ελάσσονα αρχιτεκτονική. H συνοικία των Άνω Πετραλώνων Διονύσιος Ρουμπιέν

H σημασία του φοίνικα στην κρητομυκηναϊκή θρησκεία. Mια νέα προσέγγιση Αλεξάνδρα Τράντα-Νικόλη

H γαλλική Aρ Nουβώ και η ελληνιστική τέχνη. Tο θαύμα της διαχρονικής αισθητικής Ιωάννης Τσούμας

Μουσείο: Ίδρυμα N.Π. Γουλανδρή – Mουσείο Kυκλαδικής Tέχνης Δημήτρης Πλάντζος

Ενημερωτικές στήλες και απόψεις: Αρχαιολογικά Νέα: ειδήσεις, εκθέσεις, συνέδρια, διαλέξεις, επιστολές, βιβλία Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα (επιμ.)

Aρχαιομετρικά Nέα Γιάννης Μπασιάκος

Πληροφορική: Πηγές για τη διδασκαλία της Αρχαιολογίας στο Διαδίκτυο (3) Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

English summaries: Byzantium and historiography Christina G. Angelidi

Byzantium became an object for study in the 19th century. Notably Fallmerayer and George Finlay dealt with the subject . By the 20th century it had become obvious that the history of Byzantium was significant, however Byzantine history has yet to find its place in contemporary historiographic debate. Today it is mostly the social history, and cultural history that are researched by historians, now that the distinction between disciplines has become more flexible. In every Byzantine historian’s work there lies implicitly one or another historiographic theory, such as 19th century positivism, a Marxist reading of history, the Marxist type school of Annales, the theory of structuralism that comes from the discipline of anthropology, and new-positivism.

“Consensus” with Byzantine Historiography: The Irony Elias Anagnostakis

Byzantine studies, and by extension Byzantine historiography, were from the beginning a historical field, which, although was held in contempt by historians and archaeologists, was mainly useful for the complementary knowledge it could offer. It served the knowledge of antiquity, the making of national history and was regarded as the appropriate period for the study of the decline of Roman institutions. In its effort to gain self-rule and self-esteem, by stressing its specific characteristics and interests, Byzantine historiography was engaged into a contradicting and refuting course, that led to an apologetic and complicated dead end. Nevertheless, it managed to accomplish important achievements in the political, economic and institutional history, although its relation with the historical theory and the interdisciplinary dialogue has always been problematic. A crucial turn-point occurred, when social history and anthropology were introduced in Byzantine historiography, as well as the tracing and study of the interactions between the Medieval West and Islam began, in parallel with the search for the identity of the "Byzantine man". The historiography of Early-Byzantine Peloponnese and its Dark Ages compresses all the aforementioned qualities and features in an exemplary way. It most suitable demonstrates the problematic relation between theory and history, history and archaeology, texts and tangible objects. Furthermore, it successfully proves how fragile and risky the expectations for the relation between historians and archaeologists were and how arbitrarily the other side has adopted the reputed axioms of each field. Indeed, the historical production concerning Medieval Peloponnese represents a good example at least for the study of the prevailing trends in Byzantine historiography. In conclusion, Byzantine historiography, participating in the issues of the contemporary history making and writing, as opposed to the Byzantine self-sufficiency, teaches us that what must be defined is primarily the need for interdisciplinary communication and continuous transformation of perception.  

Women and Byzantium: A Survey of the Research After 1970 Christine G. Angelidi

Byzantine studies progress steadily, but slowly. Nevertheless, research on Byzantine women has been exceptionally developed during the last three decades. This article focuses on relevant studies presenting a broad spectrum of new methodological approach. Women and law, women and economic activity, women and religious practice were the three avenues that were firstly exploited in the 1970s and early 1980s, and as a result, Byzantine women were placed in the social-economic context of their time. Then, from 1985 onwards, the shift from "empirical " to gender oriented research did show the importance of the aforementioned studies for the reconstruction of the world perception of the Byzantines.

The Study of Byzantium in Modern Greece Tonia Kioussopoulou

A brief review of the history of Byzantine studies in Greece is attempted in this article. The reason is the strong political interest that the study and the frequent "use" of Byzantium present, depending on the political coincidences of each era, from the constitution of the Modern Greek state to the mid-war period.

Byzantine Archaeology: Between the Archaeological Approach to the Medieval Remnants and the History of Byzantine Art Olga Gratziou

The terms Byzantine archaeology, Medieval archaeology, Christian archaeology, History of Byzantine art, History of Medieval art refer to related fields, sometimes overlapping each other. These terms are used with a different nuance from country to country, therefore, their content varies, depending on the case. In order their meaning to be clarified, a retrospection of the history of their use is necessary, which becomes elucidating for the understanding of the field they define and the problems their research presents. Therefore, a brief survey of the institution of Byzantine archaeology in Greece during the second decade of the twentieth century is attempted, and the hesitation of specialists in using the terms Byzantine, Medieval and Christian, regarding the material remnants surviving in Greece, is discussed. The research and educational contents of the contemporary "Byzantine archaeology" are listed, and the terms "Middle Ages” and "Medieval" are proposed as the most appropriate for every case, in parallel with the term "Byzantine", both for its chronological definition and its scientific connotations.

Byzantine Greece in French Literature Sophie Basch

Byzantine Greece, as opposed to the classical one, has not attracted the interest of French travelers. As it seems to them especially oriental, they have considered it as a "Turkish creation"! However, while their travelling accounts reveal a deep lack of understanding the Byzantine past, the novels and theatrical plays at the end of the nineteenth century demonstrate, on the contrary, their sympathy for this historic period, in which the writers recognize the decadence, typical of their own century. This sensitization reaches its climax in 1884, when Sarah Bernard played the renowned empress in Victorien Sardou's Theodora.

The Prehistoric Research in Emathia: Old and New Data Nikos Meroussis, Liana Stephani

The present prefecture of Emathia has been continuously inhabited throughout prehistory. The data from the excavation and survey research carried out in the prefecture during the last decade are summarized and presented in this article. Six settlements are inhabited in Emathia during the Early Neolithic, the most representative example being Nea Nikomedeia, which was excavated by R. Rodden in the beginning of the 60s. The locations used in this peri¬od are either tells or level ground on the hills. The available data for the Middle Neolithic are not sufficient enough for the time being. In the Late and Final Neolithic the number of settlement is rapidly increasing, thus not only tells and level ground but also caves are inhabited. During the Early Bronze Age the number of locations are decreasing, probably owing to ecological and financial factors. In the Late Bronze Age the locations inhabited are limited, since, as it seems, some population groups move to semi-mountainous areas, a procedure which continues in the Early Iron Age as well.

The French Art Nouveau and the Hellenistic Art: The Miracle of Timeless Aesthetic Ioannis Tsoumas

The strength and endurance of art values and qualities are examined in this article, in relation with the place, time, circumstances and cultural provenance of the society in which they are developed. By comparing two completely different cases of artistic prime in the world art history, those of the Hellenistic period and Art Nouveau, a comparative study is attempted, on the basis of the sources that inspired their artists as well as their common thematic repertoire, elements which contributed to the formation of the style of these artistic trends. Through this study various conclusions are reached, which lead us to consider that the great values in art remain unchanged throughout the centuries, since they express the human spirit, soul and intellect, regardless of the period. The important creators of French Art Nouveau of the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century seem to stand, more or less, on the same aesthetic platform with their anonymous colleagues of the vast, in time, geographic and cultural extent, Hellenistic era. The various arguments and criticism concerning these two cultural trends, being as a rule controversial and ambiguous, are also presented in this article. Finally, their common route is recorded, by investigating both the impact of other civilizations on them and the common techniques that they have developed, accidentally or not.

An Itinerary in the Byzantine Castle of Zichna Konstantinos D. Ketanis

The ruins of the Byzantine castle of Zichna are located six kilometers away from the modern settlement of Nea Zichni. Five sections of the fort, two gates and one tower are preserved today, as well as one Byzantine church, one cistern and two (?) Ottoman baths. In addition, three ruined houses, one bridge and the post-Byzantine church of Hagios loannis Prodromos is what remains from the adjacent village, which had been inhabited until the 1960's. Zichna is mentioned for the first time by the twelfth-century Arab geographer Idrisi, while its castle, probably built in the fourteenth century, was captured by the Ottomans in 1375 ad.

The Pillar as Symbol of Christ in Byzantine Art Maria Evangelatou

The pillar mentioned in various Biblical texts is often interpreted as a Christological symbol by the Church Fathers. With a similar symbolism it is used in the Early-Christian and the Medieval art of East and West. Three examples from the art of Byzantium are presented in this article. In the sixth-century mosaics decorating the katholikon of the Monastery of Saint Catherine on Mount Sinai a pillar is represented between the two lobes of the window on the face of the apse. It is aligned with the Lamb of God, the medallion with trie cross, the figure of Christ and the bust of David, all placed on the vertical axis of the mosaic. It is probable that here the pillar symbolizes Christ, and thus its presence between the theme of the Burning Bush and that of Moses Receiving the Tablets of Law reinforces the central theological significance of the mosaic ensemble: Before incarnation God revealed his presence only through visions, symbols and commandments, while after his incarnation he appeared in flesh before men. In the miniature on folio 147v of cod.Paris.gr. 510 (879-882) the single pillar of a peculiar edifice that stands next to the Annointment of David is represented on the same vertical axis with the altar of the Sacrifice of Abraham and the column anointed by Jacob. It seems that here the pillar functions as a Christological symbol, enriching the multiple references of the miniature to the doctrine of Incarnation. On folio 28v of cod.Christ Church gr. 12 in Oxford (1265-1300) Mathew is depicted next to a slender pillar, crowned with the bust of Christ Emmanuel. Both the iconographic type of Emmanuel and the pillar that symbolizes Christ emphasize the doctrine of Incarnation, which is especially stressed in the beginning of the Gospel of Mathew.

Aesthetic Qualities in Minor Architecture: Ano Petralona, Athens Dionysios Roubien

Ano Petralona was built like all peripheral quarters of Athens: Soon after the establishment of the city as the capital of Greece, the lower income brackets, unable to build according to the urban plan, were jerry-building outside its limits, and not before long the built area was necessarily incorporated into the original town plan. Thus, this quarter became part of the official town plan in the late nineteenth century. The building tissue in Ano Petralona comprises three interesting types of edifices: The first includes the neoclassical and the eclecticism buildings of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, representing the "popular" version of the official architectural trends, as they are expressed by their contemporary buildings in the central sectors of Athens. However, in spite of their adjustment to the local conditions, they very well preserve the basic features of their bourgeois models. Then, the type of the one- and two-storey mid-war house follows, which echoes the doctrines of the modern architectural movement, but adapted to the demands of the popular city sectors. Nevertheless, the characteristic elements of the movement are obvious, as in the former type. The third type occurs only in the area of Assyrmatos, the neighborhood lying on the higher part of the district. It includes one- and two-storey dwellings of the first postwar years, which, however, have undergone serious interventions. Thus, the identical cubic volumes have been enriched with yards, sheds, porches and fencing, creating a neighborhood with a strong local physiognomy. This is a popular architecture with a great historical value, not only for its rarity, but mainly because it proves the admirable, wise way in which the popular expression prevails, even if it is housed in a given cocoon that represent completely different aesthetic values.

Modern Urban and Folk Knockers Manos Mikelakis

Already since antiquity the knocker, as a secondary usable and decorative element of the door, must have expressed aspects of a mystical, cosmological and religious thought. The assimilative power of folk civilization, in spite of the radical historical, religious and social realignments, has not only conserved, but it has also en¬riched its morphoplastic vocabulary, preserving at the same time a palimpsest of beliefs and superstitions that refer to the house doors and gates. The present research and study of the modern folk knockers has a double objective: on the one hand, through an original typological classification, to set off the wealth of their form elaboration; and on the other, to project the sym¬bolism and beliefs that they probably include. In our days the knockers gradually vanish from house doors. At the same time their modern form expressions for purely decorative functions seem to be inferior to the artistic aesthetic and their symbolism, and thus they are degraded in industrialized forms, which copy the most popular old models. Although quite many modern urban and folk knockers still survive, a great part of this urban heritage is lost forever. Their concise study attempts to recall and to compose memories and pictures of our youth.

The Ionian Neighbors of Western Akarnania: The Kalamos and Kastos Islands Aphendra G. Moutzali

Episkopi, one of the three villages of Kalamos, presents a special archaeological interest. Remnants of the ancient town of the island have been preserved in the area of Hagios Minas, while Kastro, a fortress of military character with an earlier phase dating from the Early Byzantine period, is visible from the sea, as it stands north of Episkopi. Fortification remains of the ancient settlements of Kalamos have been located in the northeast side of the island at the sites Xylokastro, Zygos and Hellenika. The old unfortified settlement Kalamos was ere¬cted below the highest mountain top of the island, Vouni, and far from the sea, in order its inhabitants to be safeguarded against the pirates. Kastos is a low, oblong, stony island, north of Kalamos. Its old settlement was lying higher than the small church of Saint Aimilianos, in an altitude of 155 m, while its new one started taking shape in the nineteenth century, close to the harbor. A second, natural harbor is formed in the Sarakiniko Bay, in the west side of the island. Items dating from the Late Hellenistic, Roman and Early Byzantine era have been surveyed on Kastos. The Ionian islands Kalamos and Kastos have never been devastated and present a regular and continuous habitation from the Late Neolithic to our time. This fact is mainly due to their geographic position and to the importance of the sea-route, in which they are located, connecting Italy with the Ionian Sea and the coast of Epirus with Western Akamania, the Ionian Islands and the Peloponnese. The systematic study of the old, ruined today, settlements of these islands, which still preserve, almost intact, many remnants of their past, will provide us with data and information useful for the research.  

The Significance of the Palm Tree in the Creto-Mynoan Religion: A New Approach Alexandra Tranta-Nikoli

The palm tree has a special significance in the religious iconography of the Creto-Mycenean world. Its representation next to an altar, suggests the sacred environment in which the rites honoring the deity take place (sacrifices, bloodless offerings, dances), the watering of the palm tree, performed by the Demons, is an invocation for land fertility, a ritual of sympathetic magic purposed to cause rain. The dance in a palm tree grove, resembling that of Artemis, is also an invocation for the women at the borderline between childhood and coming to age for marriage, the virgin deity being their protector. The relation of the palm tree to the dead is very close: it embellishes the Palatial amphorae, which are funeral offerings, it is represented on urns and prochooi and it decorates an hydria that had been used for libation, before it was deposited as a funeral offering into a grave. The choice of the palm tree or Tree of Life as a fertility and bearing symbol is based on its botanical qualities, which relate the plant with the water, an indispensable element to the libation rituals aiming at the fruitfulness of earth and women and to funerary libations as well. The functions of fertility and bearing and that of the relation to the Under World are interconnected and are all present in the persona of Persephone, the classical version of their incarnation.

Museums and Globalization Georgia Kakourou-Chroni

"Museums and Globalization" is the subject suggested by the International Council of Museums (ICOM) in 2003 on the occasion of the celebration of the universal Day of Museums on the 18th of May. We are used to regard globalization as a negative notion or at least as a complicated and ambiguous one. However, we could deal with globalization through the spirit of Christian love and thus approach the needs of other people with open mind and heart. Museum and school can play an important role in this direction. The museums cannot ignore the pressure exercised by one or more stronger cultures on weaker ones, therefore they should redefine their role as regards their collections and communication with the public, considering the cultural tradition of each people as a value in itself. The Greek school, on the other hand, is compelled by the reality of our time to incorporate in its community many foreign students and to help them to communicate with their human environment, while retaining their diverse identity. Thus, the Koumantareios Gallery of Sparta, a branch of the National Gallery, has participated in the celebration of the universal Day of Museums with the educational program "The children of today design a museum for the children of tomorrow". The objective of this program is to deepen the understanding among children and to "exploit” the diversity by transforming it to creativity. Culture, after all, contributes greatly in realizing better such notions as identity and diversity and fighting against others such as racism and xenophobia.

Εκπαιδευτικές σελίδες: Oι αρχαίοι θεοί: Η αρχή του κόσμου Μαρίζα Ντεκάστρο

Τεύχος 89, Δεκέμβριος 2003 No. of pages: 130
Κύριο Θέμα: Πολ Ζαμό: Στην Ελλάδα με τον Χαράλαμπο Ευγενίδη (1914). Ένας ταξιδιωτικός “αντι-οδηγός” στην Ελλάδα του 20ου αιώνα Sophie Basch

Σιλλουρόκαμπος (Παρεκκλησιά). Οι πρώτοι αγρότες της Κύπρου Jean Guilaine

Η αρχαιολογική παιδεία των αρχιτεκτόνων στη σύγχρονη Ελλάδα Francois Loyer

Η παραγωγή μεταξιού στο Σουφλί. Συμβολή στην ελληνική βιομηχανική αρχαιολογία Marie-Laure Portal

Βιομηχανική αρχαιολογία και κληρονομιά: επικοινωνίες και εντάσεις Χριστίνα Αγριαντώνη

Ιστοριογραφία της Αρχαιολογίας. Νεότεροι χρόνοι Ν. Ε. Καραπιδάκης

Η “ανακάλυψη” των αρχείων τον 19ο αιώνα – Οι συναφείς επιστήμες Ν. Ε. Καραπιδάκης

Η ιστοριογραφία και η βιομηχανική αρχαιολογία Ασπασία Λούβη-Κίζη

Η αναγέννηση του γοτθικού και οι απαρχές της μεσαιωνικής αρχαιολογίας στον 19ο αιώνα Ρίκα Μπενβενίστε

Ελληνομάθεια, αρχαιογνωσία και εθνική κληρονομιά. Το ελληνικό προεπαναστατικό ενδιαφέρον για τις αρχαιότητες Γιώργος Τόλιας

Άλλα θέματα: Νερό, “Ύδωρ”. Οι χρήσεις του στην αρχαιότητα και τον πρώιμο ελληνικό Μεσαίωνα Κώστας Μαντάς

Οι προϊστορικές έρευνες στην Ημαθία. Οι ανασκαμμένοι οικισμοί (Β΄Μέρος) Νίκος Μερούσης, Λιάνα Στεφανή

Παλαιοδιατροφή: Τα σταθερά ισότοπα και η αρχαιολογία Ευφροσύνη Βήκα, Mike Richards

Η περίφημη αρχαία πορφύρα της Ερμιόνης και η τεχνολογία της Σταύρος Πρωτοπαπάς, Βασίλης Γκάτσος

Αποτυπώσεις αρχαιολογικών χώρων και ανασκαφών με χρήση τηλεκατευθυνόμενου ελικοπτέρου Δημήτρης Σκαρλάτος, Σοφία Θεοδωρίδου

Η συντήρηση της φορητής εικόνας της Παναγίας Γλυκοφιλούσας του Φώτη Κόντογλου Κωνσταντίνος Στουπάθης

Παραδοσιακές και σύγχρονες μέθοδοι για τη λύση του προβλήματος της ταύτισης θραυσμάτων Αθανάσιος Βέλιος, Alan Cummings, John Harrison

Μουσείο: Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο Άργους Άννα Μπανάκα-Δημάκη

Ενημερωτικές στήλες και απόψεις: Aρχαιομετρικά Nέα Γιάννης Μπασιάκος

Από το Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology, τεύχος 15/2 (2002) Σοφία Αντωνιάδου

Διεθνές συνέδριο: Η Αρχαιομεταλλουργία στην Ευρώπη, Μιλάνο, 24-26 Σεπτεμβρίου 2003 Γιώργος Βαρουφάκης

Αρχαιολογικά Νέα: ειδήσεις, εκθέσεις, συνέδρια, διαλέξεις, επιστολές, βιβλία Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα (επιμ.)

Πληροφορική: Πηγές για τη διδασκαλία της Αρχαιολογίας στο Διαδίκτυο (4) Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

English summaries: The historiography of archaeology in modern times N.E. Karapidakis

To Greek intellectuals of the 19th century a return to antiquity seemed to be a good way of being accepted by their European counterparts. Architecture and archaeology were very much connected to each other. With the advance of the 19th century, European nations began to search for a story to go with their medieval origins. Monuments, being of course archaeological evidence, became of primary interest. The archaeological concept of a Material Life introduced a tendency among archaeologists to study the background against which such monuments originally stood. The general term “Industrial Archaeology” introduced the study of material life by economic historians, ethnologists and anthropologists, while it expanded archaeological thought.

Hellenism, Antiquarianism and National Legacy: Greek Antiquities Before the War of Independence Giorgos Tolias

The turn of the Greek intelligentsia and the educated social elite to antiquities takes place in the last decades before the War of Independence: archaeological collections are created, the antiquarian editions become more frequent, the Press dedicates more and more space to antiquarian and archaeological subjects in the section "Archaeology". At the same time the reaction against the Greek participation in the trafficking of antiquities is piling up. The turn to antiquities is the impact of the local philological traditions, which is inspired by the excessive archaeological interest of the foreigners. The intelligentsia understands the political and symbolic value of the ancient monuments, which is internationally recognized as national legacy. The scattered and omnipresent antiquities are the material tokens of national excellence, by far more direct than the philological heritage, which verify and confirm both continuation and sequence.

The Archaeological Background of Architects in Modern Greece François Loyer

The contribution of architects to archaeology is especially important, although their relation to this science is ambivalent and occasionally conflicting. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century architectural drawing has been used for imprinting and representing the archaeological remnants, thus contributing to their more thorough knowledge. However, the product of this pro¬cedure not only functioned as a precise documentation, but it also recorded the tendencies and problematic of each period. For example, the linear drawing of neo¬classical archaeologists emphasized the decorative ele¬ments and the side views, whereas in the second third of the nineteenth century stress was given to the poly-chromy of decoration. In the same period, however, the romantic idealism of Leo von Klenze was succeeded by the more realistic and adjusted to the demands of the time approach of Florimond Boulanger or of Lyssandros Kaftantzoglou, which annoyed the fanatic lovers of classic. In edifices like Zappeion, the Polytechnical School, the Parliament or the church of Hagios Konstantinos a broad variety of influences from other historical periods is present, the result of a typological eclecticism. In the middle of the nineteenth century, when architecture appeared less magnificent but open and inclined to international exchanges, foreign archaeologists in Athens became the teachers of the new generation of architects. The dialogue of architecture with archaeology was not interrupted in the twentieth century, in spite of the appearance of modernism, although temporary rifts did occur. Architecture continued to refer to the past, its reference, however, to classic antiquity became less and less persuasive. Archeology, an autonomous science by then, changed and advanced in the field of the ethnology of folk art and tradition, while its contemporary architectural production continued to be identified and to mingle with it.

Paul Jamot: In Greece with Charalambos Eugenidis (1914). A Traveler’s Anti-guide in Twentieth-century Greece Sophie Basch

In the end of the nineteenth century the French traveler had many references in his disposal, if he planed to visit Greece, where the archaeological excavations were constantly multiplied and whose people had disillusioned the philhellenes and was ridiculed by Armand Abu, who in 1854 in his play Grèce contemporaine had masqueraded the descendants of Pericles as Punch. How the glamour of this demoted Olympus, that is contemporary Greece, could be restored, when Athens, its capital, could not rival the glory of the past more than its contemporary metropolises. Not to mention the great men of the country, who, in the eventful political life of the small kingdom, separating Greeks in "purists" and followers of the vernacular, remained rather obscure, and thus we continue to ignore their achievements. Therefore, what was left were the archaeological ruins and the live ruins, the Greek people, politely been characterized as "degenerated", whose "revival" was considered as rather impossible. To oppose this unrealistic picture of Greece, which was limited to a capital, caricature of the country, and to some heroic remnants, Paul Jamot published in 1914 a book entitled En Grèce, avec Charalambos Eugénidis. His approach to the Greek reality made this work a traveler's anti-guide. The de-dramatization Jamot made can only function, if we renounce heroization and the naive, linear history of a Greece, which we review as a gallery full of great and glorious men, from the heroes of antiquity to the illustrious personalities of the Greek War of Independence. His narration, based on his guide, Charalambos Eugenidis, a reliable and folk mentor, whose presence is more emotive than active as he adds tone and color to the atmosphere, pictures Greece in its human climax. A climax lost until then in the reference to statues or in the bold, mainly decorative, sketching of the country, which stressed the pathetic local reality and demonstrated the degeneration of Greek people. This human climax was the real expression of Greece, as Le Corbusier wrote a few years later.

The Discovery of Archives in the Nineteenth Century. The Interrelated Sciences Nikos E. Karapidakis

The great upheavals effected by the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars led many young people in the early nineteenth century to redefine their relation to the past, without, however, to part from the vested values of the Enlightenment. The return to the past and the study of the history of mankind became identical. This redefinition led to the institution of special schools for the education of those able to understand the records of the past. The integration of various archival services, the accumulation of records confiscated from the Napoleon's army, as well as the archival methods applied, led to the revision of many rules and to reevaluation of modes of managing the archival material existing in various European countries before the French Revolution. Thus, in combination with the specialized schools, the science of Archives was gradually created, as a separate sector dealing exclusively with the management of archives. The reevaluation of the past went hand in hand with the romantic ideas concerning the notion of a nation and its history. The historical sciences that were developed throughout the nineteenth century were so organized as to promote the national history and the European nations. The classical philology, a field in which Germany prevailed in the beginning of the nineteenth century, supported the studies relevant to the medieval records, as well as the publishing practices, a route that France also followed, after having completed its own independent course. Other countries then succeed, like Britain, Italy and Greece.  

The Gothic Revival and the Origins of Medieval Archaeology in the Nineteenth Century Rika Benveniste

The nineteenth century is of special interest, not only for its intellectual and ideological movement that accompanied the emerging admiration for the medieval past and its monuments, mainly churches and castles, but also for the institutions and personalities that created the framework for the cultivation of historical studies and medieval archaeology. The "Gothic revival" did not find one and only expression, as the examples of England and France prove. In England, already since the middle of the eighteenth century, the "rediscovery" of the Middle Ages is present in the interest of bourgeoisie and aristocracy in the "Gothic" forms of furniture, decoration and the restoration of medieval castles. Scholars and architects supported the idea that both the way of life and the art of the Middle Ages were superior to those of their time. Therefore, they should become examples for imitation, so that the contemporary architects could reach the structural clarity and the high technical level, prevalent in medieval architecture. In France, Eugène Viollet-le-Duc was the leading figure in the Committee of Historical Monuments and its policy for their restoration. According to his theory, "the restoration of a monument does not simply mean its repair or reconstruction, but its reinstatement in a full, complete form, even if it had never existed". His pursuit was to discover the original logic of the builders of cathedrals, which could be achieved by removing the later additions, stressing the features that should had prevailed in the building and even completing in full the form of the edifice. Most of his contemporaries seem to have favored such a restoration of monuments. However, there were others who severely criticized these notions and practices, denouncing the homogeneity of forms and the modern inventions. Both became the symbol of the archaeological movement of the time and owed a lot, in France at least, to Viollet-le-Duc's work and talent. It was in the same period in England that John Ruscin was fiercely arguing that the restoration of a building could lead to its absolute destruction. The medieval "critical archaeology" flourished in the intellectual milieu of the late nineteenth century, when the reaction to any restoration project was strong. Its objective was the description and dating of monuments, the excavations that bring to light the substructures and layers of successive churches and towers, the research projects regarding entire areas and the monographs on specific buildings. In the nineteenth century the remains of the Old Regime, towers and cathedrals, archives and works of art, gained a new identity and became the emblems of a new national myth. In the climate of Romanticism, by exploiting the literature of the past and the principles of positivism, the "Gothic revival' revitalized the archaeology of the Middle Ages.

Industrial Archaeology and Heritage: Communication and Conflict Christina Agriantoni

Industrial archaeology is a new discipline and at the same time a new practice in the field of the protection of cultural heritage. This duality in its character is due to the conditions that affected its creation in time and place: it was in England of 1950’s, when the country had been swept by a huge wave of de-industrialization, that the scientific interest in industrial ruins coincided with the social demand for preserving the nations’ resources, know-how and local identities. Industrial archaeology, by adopting concepts from the relevant sciences, as well as from the field of the protection of monuments, contributed to the broadening of these concepts and to the introduction of new ones. It also played a decisive role in the deposition of the notion of monument and in the enrichment of the concept of heritage. It also favored the creation of a new kind of museums, the eco-museums, and, instead of studying the technical achievement, it chose to consider the entire environment of productive activities. However, a conflict was created from the beginning between the scientific and the preservation issues as regards both the specifications of the scientific field and the character of the interventions in the relics of industrial heritage. In Greece, the study and documentation of industrial archaeology started in the 1980’s, while quite many initiatives have been taken for its promotion. Nevertheless, the recent industrial past of the country does not seem to have been appreciated properly, and as a result the material remains of this past are approached and treated with inconsistency.

Historiography and Industrial Archaeology Aspasia Louvi-Kizi

The historiography of Greek industrial archaeology is poor, mainly because of the relatively recent interest in this specific subject. Therefore, the relevant studies represent until now especially remarkable but isolated efforts, since they do not belong to the framework of a cultural policy with clearly set objectives. The adoption of West European models is not easily applicable, not only because the issues regarding general principles have not been resolved even there, but also because the differences existing in Greek reality play a determinant role. In the last twenty years, however, not only the scientific society, but also the broader public have become sensitive and active in this direction. In addition, the new archaeological low has taken the first step for the planning of an explicit cultural policy in this field. In this institutional framework all the bodies involved in industrial archaeology have to coordinate their efforts and to be aware of the self-generating difficulties of this subject, which are due to: a) the ephemeral character of buildings and structures, b) the high degree of desolation, c) the often vast area occupied by the built complexes and the respectively important economic interests in future investments there, d) the architectural peculiarities of the buildings, e) the problems created by the mechanical equipment. It is, thus, concluded that the reuse of the building-shell undoubtedly conserves the historical landscape, but not the industrial heritage. On the other hand, the advancing technology does not allow the same or similar use of industrial complexes, The few buildings that have been restored to be used as museums are the only exception. For all the rest, the first step to be taken for their preservation as monuments of our industrial legacy is their systematic documentation and thorough study. This task requires the cooperation of many specialties, which in coordination with the state, will lead to the creation of a historiography, valuable for the preservation of industrial heritage.  

The Silk Production in Soufli: A Contribution to the Greek Industrial Archaeology Marie-Laure Portal

The silk worm-breeding town of Soufli in Thrace is of great interest for the Greek industrial archaeological studies for many reasons. Therefore, its economic influ¬ence on Greek silk production at the turn of the twentieth century, the concentration on that place of all productive phases -from the mulberry tree culture to the products sale-, as well as the preservation of buildings and equipment would entirely justify a relevant monograph. For this purpose, in addition to vestiges and to some archive material, unfortunately incomplete for the Tzivre enterprise, the researcher could also use pho¬tographs showing the industrious life of the inhabitants. This article attempts to demonstrate the interest the site presents and the promising future of the young Greek industrial archaeology through two kinds of seri-cultural equipment, the property patrimony devoted to sericulture and the furniture and productive tools. Indeed, in addition to the complete demolishing of the existing buildings and the documentation of their history, the study would determine the specific contribution of each type of tool and property devices to the quality of products. For example, regarding the assignment of the Prussian specialist masons to build a silk worm-breeding factory, it would be necessary to determine the building arrangements targeting to optimize the worm environment and therefore the cocoon quality. This approach can be transposed to furniture and tools, despite any focal particularities and difficulties. Furthermore, the Soufli study would improve the factors which concern the choice of species and the kinds of culture used by professionals for improving the cocoon quality, if it could include an analysis of worm egg production and of mulberry tree farming. In the future monograph on the Soufli equipment, the definition of elements significant for silk production - architectural improvisations specific to sericulture, parts of tools necessary for getting such or such thread quality - would allow us to make comparisons, both historical (chronological and geographical) and qualitative (comparison with other Greek fibers).

Sillourokambos (Parekklessia): The First Peasants of Cyprus Jean Guilaine

In less than ten years, owing to the excavations at Sillourokambos (Parekklessia) that is located on southern Cyprus, our knowledge of the settlement of the first farming and cattle-raising communities on the island has made an impressive progress. These excavations have also brought to the fore the issue of dating the domestication of various species of flora and fauna of the mainland of Cyprus. All started in the end of the 1980s, when the antiquaries working at the coastal area of Amathounta, the ancient capital of a Cypriot «kingdom», decided to draw the archaeological map of the district, in order to get a better idea of the relations between the city and its rural surrounding. This project not only enabled the precise location of the earlier layers of inhabitation, but it also proved the existence of a great number of Neolithic settlements in this region, east of Limassol. Thus, an especially thorough synopsis of all the prehistoric records was possible to be worked out. Afterwards, research started in the more extended archaeological site at Sillourokarnbos, a fortress of around 20 square meters in extent, which was built five kilometers far from the coast on a small plateau between two valleys. Originally the objective was the continuation of strata to be proved, but then this effort led to the re-classification and dating of the abundant archaeological material, coming from the archaeological site and from the nu¬merous nearby settlements.

The Prehistoric Research in Emathia: The Excavated Settlements (Second Part) Nikos Meroussis, Liana Stephani

The results of the excavations in four prehistoric settlements in Emathia are presented in this second part of the article.The settlement of Nea Nikomedeia is a small tumulus, inhabited during the Early and Late Neolithic. During three excavational periods the excavator, R. Rodden, discovered a small section of the settlement that was inhabited by approximately 600 people and was consisted from about 100 buildings during the Early Neolithic. The three habitation horizons of the settlement had a close sequence the one with the other. The post-holed dwellings were made of tree trunks, branches and mortar. One distinct among them, due to its size and finds, has been considered by the excavator to be a sanctuary. The excavation of the settlement at Polyplatanos commenced in 1977. It is a low and extensive tumulus that was inhabited during the middle of the fifth millennium B.C. The ruined houses on the top of the tumulus have been constructed with tree trunks, branches and mortar. The most characteristic find of the settlement is a number of vessels, decorated according to the various styles current in this period in Thessaly and Macedonia. The archaeological site of Kallipetra, on Mount Vermion, was located during the construction works of Egnatia. The area has continuously been inhabited from the Neolithic to the Hellenistic era. During the Neolithic the settlement seems to occupy a very small area, while during the Bronze Age is obvious that it has been expanded and developed. However, the continuous habitation has seriously damaged the prehistoric inhabitation strata of the district. The settlement at Angelochori is a modest tumulus with steep slopes. The excavation brought to light two main habitation phases, dating from the Late Bronze Age. It is obvious that a mound, at least four meters high, enclosed the settlement that was built with mortar, useless building material, wood and shards. The earthenware from Angelochori includes a great variety of decorated mat-painted and incised vases as well as huge storage pots.  

Water: Its Use in Antiquity and in the Early Greek Middle Ages Kostas Mantas

The objective of the present article is to investigate the use of water during the Hellenistic and Roman period. Special attention and emphasis was given to the sufficient water supply of cities, sanctuaries, water mills, baths, as well as to the construction of flood controls and to the survival of the practices of water benefaction, in relation to the management of water resources during the Late antiquity.

Paleonutrition: Stable Isotopes and Archaeology Euphrosyni Vika, Mike Richards

Nutrition represents a basic problematic of the archaeological thought. By studying the nutritious behavior, we can reach some conclusions on the function of society, the division of labor between sexes, the relation of religious rituals to food (offering, consumption, restriction). Besides covering the needs of survival, nutrition is also determined by the various preferences generated by society and civilization. In the research process of nutrition, the analysis of the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen of the bones collagen is based on the principle that the collagen rate corresponds to the rate of the nutrition goods consumed plus a percentage of concentration. More specifically, the percentage of carbon (δ13C) indicates if the protein derives from sea or land (fish or meat) and also if plants, like corn, with C4 way of photosynthesis have been consumed. Whereas the percentage of nitrogen (δ15N) shows if the protein is vegetable or animal, the bone collagen is used in archaeology, since it is the only organic substance that is preserved in satisfactory for analysis levels. The present article deals with Kalamaki, a Bronze Age cemetery in the area of Achaia. Although the condition of the bones preserved there is very bad, the analysis shows a generally uniform nutrition, with meat, dairy products and cereals as protein source. The absence of fish from this nutrition has to be studied, in order the conditions that affected its consumption to be established.

The famous ancient purple of Hermione and its technology Stavros Protopapas, Vassilis Gatsos

Purple, the so-called royal dye, was the most beautiful and expensive dye in antiquity. It was known in Minoan Crete and on the Aegean islands and because of its importance it has been thoroughly described by almost all writers of the time. Here, in this article we have concentrated on the famous purple of Hermione which for over 1000 years was the most prized in the East. First the technology of the times is described and then we go on to examine the dye chemically, phasmatoscopically and macroscopically. Purple dye came from the shell murex of the district. Purple gave to the fabrics of the time an impressive and peculiar violet hue, similar to that of an amethyst. The colour difference between Hermione purple and its rival Tyros purple is also recorded in this article. These were the two prevalent royal purple dyes in Mediterranean countries. The Hermionian purple was found at Susa by Alexander the Great and described by Plutarch.

Traditional and Modern Methods for Solving the Problem of Fragmentation Athanasios Velios, Alan Cummings, John Harrison

By the term “fragmentation” we mean the identification of the original position of a fragment in relation to the object or building to which it belongs, as well as the selection of the adjacent fragments in order to be put together to a unit. The fragmentation is traditionally approached on the basis of the ability of the human brain to combine fractured surfaces and characteristic decorative elements. The traditional techniques, however, are time consuming and require special equipment if, in particular, the relevant objects are bulky or heavy. Some scholars have proposed the use of computers for solving the problem of fragmentation, however, a practical solution applicable to a wide variety of objects has not been set forth as yet. The methodology proposed here is based on the creation of three-dimensional digital models of fragments and their analysis on the principles of Riemannian geometry and Mahalanobis distance. These models are segmented in fractured and decorative surfaces. The data concerning the object derive from decoration and from the available archaeological knowledge, while the fractured surfaces are numerically characterized and identified on the basis of their topography. The combination of the aforementioned parameters decreases the possible associations of fragments considerably and contributes to the faster solution of fragmentation, without endangering, at the same time, the actual objects.  

The marking out of archaeological sites and excavations with the use of a guided helicopter Dimitris Skarlatos, Sophia Theodoridou

This article introduces the application of digital photogrammetry with the use of a radio-controlled helicopter for a faster and more precise marking out of archaeological sites and excavations. Minimisation of the stay on the archaeological site, precision and reduced cost are the main advantages of the method. Photographs as a medium provide promptitude, ease and quality of recorded information, this is what makes it a handy instrument for the documentation of each stage of an excavation. Photogrammetry has a clear advantage over all methods, when the stay on the site is minimal, when it is not sure whether the measurings will actually be needed and it is not yet known which are details that are needed to be recorded.

The Restoration of Photis Kontoglou’s Panaghia Glykophilousa Konstantinos Stoupathis

There are quite a few works of art both in Greek and Western hagiography, which have been damaged not only by the usual environmental factors, like humidity, but also by malign human intervention, such as inappropriate restoration. This article deals with the restoration of the portable icon of Panaghia Glykophylousa, painted by Photis Kontoglou. The restoration of the work was quite problematic: the wood panel of the icon was swollen, owing to the humidity of the environment, and maltreated, when it was attempted to reaffix the two sections of the painting on a new wooden surface. The edge of the icon was over-painted, and when this later layer of painting was removed in the course of restoration, it was revealed that the new wooden panel had been covered with a plasticized canvas, before the original painting was transferred on it. The painted surface was covered in the past with a probably synthetic varnish, insoluble to mild organic dissolvers. For this reason the sections of underpainting and painting were fixed and the painting surface was cleaned mechanically. The reconstruction of the painting sections was done by stages for the best completion of the lost painting, Needless to say, that special care was taken for the preventive preservation of the icon.

Εκπαιδευτικές σελίδες: Οι αρχαίοι θεοί: Η θεά Γη και τα παιδιά της Μαρίζα Ντεκάστρο

Τεύχος 90, Μάρτιος 2004 No. of pages: 130
Κύριο Θέμα: Ο χορός στην αρχαιότητα Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα

Ο χορός στην αρχαία Ελλάδα. Μια απόπειρα κατανόησης Frederick Naerebout

Ο χορός στη μινωική Κρήτη Στέλλα Μανδαλάκη

Τα πήλινα αγάλματα από τον προϊστορικό οικισμό της Αγίας Ειρήνης στην Κέα Miriam Caskey

Χοροί του Απόλλωνα. Σπάρτη – Δήλος – Δελφοί Ζώζη Δ. Παπαδοπούλου

Η εικονογραφία των εκστατικών χορών στην αρχαϊκή και κλασική εποχή Ευρυδίκη Κεφαλίδου

Αρχαίος πυρρίχιος και πυρριχίστριες Αλεξάνδρα Γουλάκη-Βουτυρά

Χορός και θεραπεία στην αρχαία Ελλάδα Άννα Λάζου

Η παρουσία της όρχησης μέσα από την τέχνη του μιμητισμού στον αρχαίο ελληνικό κόσμο Στέλλα Δούκα, Βασίλης Καϊμακάμης

Η λύρα στον ελλαδικό χώρο στις εποχές του Χαλκού και του Σιδήρου Στέλιος Ψαρουδάκης

Άλλα θέματα: Μελέτη των αρχαίων τειχών της Μεθώνης Παναγιώτης Φουτάκης

Η καταγωγή του Νεοκλασικισμού και η αρχαιοελληνική επιρροή στη Γαλλική Επανάσταση Πηνελόπη Βουτσίνου

Η ελληνική επιρροή στα δυτικά και κεντρικά Βαλκάνια κατά την προ-ρωμαϊκή περίοδο. Σερβία και Μαυροβούνιο Dubranka Ujes

Διαφορές στην κατασκευαστική τεχνική των πλοίων της ελληνιστικής περιόδου Απόστολος Δελής

Το οιδιπόδειο σύμπλεγμα και ο Φρόιντ Παναγιώτης Γ. Συκιώτης

Μουσείο: Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο Σκύρου Αμαλία Καραπασχαλίδου

Ενημερωτικές στήλες και απόψεις: Αρχαιολογικά Νέα: ειδήσεις, εκθέσεις, συνέδρια, διαλέξεις, βιβλία Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα (επιμ.)

Πληροφορική: Έντυπες και ηλεκτρονικές δημοσιεύσεις στο χώρο της Αρχαιολογίας (1) Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

Aρχαιομετρικά Nέα Γιάννης Μπασιάκος

English summaries: Dance in antiquity Katerina Tsekoura

Dance was religious and a means of worshipping the gods. In Minoan Crete dance often had to do with the manifestation of a deity. The clay figurines of dancers dating from the Bronze Age that were found in the Agia Irini district on the island of Kea probably have to do with the manifestation (epiphany) of the god Dionysus. There were different kinds of dance in ancient Greece ranging from the modest choral dance which combined orchestral music (orchesis) with song (ode), to the opposite kind of dance, the Bacchic dances. The extreme tension of the dancers in ecstatic dances can be seen in the“passionate motifs” depicted in images of the time. Plato mentions peaceful, melodic dance known as “emmelia”. These dances were of a social and religious nature. He also mentions the war dance “pyrrichio” and the bacchic dance where the dancers made obscene gestures. The pyrrhic war dance can be seen on vases of the 5th century BC, usually danced by naked women.

Dance in Ancient Greece: An Attempt to Understand Frederick Naerebout

In our modern world we tend to forget how important the direct, face-to-face communication was in Antiquity. In ancient Greece mousike, that is the combination of poetry, music and dance, was a popular and effective way of oral communication with a large nonverbal component. This mousike was considered indispensable to religion: it was the best way to attract an audience and communicate with it. In a religious dance the participants would spent their energy to please the divinities with their performance. Indeed many gods were thought to be dancers themselves. And, of course, inside and outside religion - if anything can be said to be 'outside' religion in Antiquity- people simply were enjoying themselves with singing and dancing. Mousike was essential to Greek culture, therefore it is well documented and we can draw information on music and dance from various sources. As a result, we know a lot about mousike, while at the same time and quite paradoxically our knowledge about dance is poor. We have only a faint idea about the motion and movements of the ancient Greek dance, and its reconstruction is impossible. Nevertheless, there are texts and representations that tell us about dance so much as to enable us to understand it and to give it the proper, prominent position it held in the ancient Greek culture, together with the other constituents of mousike, without which our picture of the ancient world would inevitably remain incomplete.  

Dance in Minoan Crete Stella Mandalaki

Dance in Minoan Crete has especially been developed since the beginning of the second millennium B.C. and has been directly connected with cult, especially with the rites for the deity's epiphany. On the basis of the Minoan iconography an attempt is made for the distinction of the various dance events and the investigation of their content. The most important Minoan dance was the circular dance, performed either by men or women. The male dance was closed in schema and funeral in character. In the female dance, which had a ritual character, the participants, forming an open cycle, were moving independently. Furthermore, it was characterized by a wider variety of gestures than its male counterpart as well as by an enlarged participation and an introductory phase, when performed in the palace. In the context of a composite event performed around a sacred tree or stone, the dance accompanying the ritual movements of the worshipers was aiming at the epiphany of the divinity. There was also another female dance, performed with the arms bent and resting on the hips, as well as a number of ritual processions in which the rhythmic pace of the participants was accompanied by music. The Minoan dances influenced greatly the dance tradition of Mycenaean Greece, and the fascination they had for the spectators survived as a memory in the later historic era.  

The Terracotta Statues from the Prehistoric Site of Ayia Irini, Kea Miriam Caskey

The prehistoric Minoan and Mycenean worlds have endowed us with many examples of dancing figures, usually female, either in the form of terracotta figurines or as representations on the "Minoan/Mycenean" gold seal rings and sealstones. The terracotta statues of dancers found at Ayia Irini in Kea island are distinct among all the others known so far and unique as to size.

Dances of Apollo. Sparta – Delos – Delphi Zozi Papadopoulou

The position of choreia, that is the combination of dance with ode, in the cult of Apollo in Sparta, Delos and Delphi, major centers of his worship, is examined in this article. According to Plato, Apollo was the god who donated to the humans the feeling of rhythm and harmony and the deity who, together with Dionysus and the Muses, gave to the mortals the wealth of dance and feast. Sparta was one of the most important centers of choral music in the Archaic period, as it is also testified by the choral events held during the three major Apollo's festivals, the Gymnopaediae, the Hyacinthia and the Karneia. Choreia was a component of the Spartan education and played a significant role in the incorporation of youths to the society of adults. In Delos the status of choreia was prominent and was closely related with sacrificial rites. Furthermore, the mimic dimension in some of the most celebrated Delian choruses presents a particular interest. Finally, the dances of the Pythian Apollo seem to be related mainly with the epiphany of the god and the ritual of initiation, regardless if they were performed in Delphi or in his other Pythian sanctuaries.

“Entheos Choreia”: The Iconography of Ecstatic Dances in the Archaic and Classical Period Eurydice Kefalidou

In many regions of the Greek world dance events of peculiar character were held in the framework of worshiping certain deities. These dances were usually called “ecstatic” with the ancient meaning of the term "ek-sta-sis", that is displacement, deviation from the usual rational behavior, sudden and intense change of psychological mood and mental state. According to the ancient written sources the psychosomatic strain of the ecstatic dancers was making their heart beating faster and tears running from their eyes. Some of them fainted or fell in catalepsy, their general behavior corresponding to people who had lost their mind or who were drunk. It is obvious that the ecstatic dances stand on the boundary between a distinct human motion, called dance, and an unusual psychosomatic state, described as "mania". Both these elements are apparent in the iconography of the ecstatic dances, known mainly through their numerous representations on Attic vases from the Archaic and Classical period, depicting groups of ecstatic female dancers of Dionysiac rites. The study of these representations reveals that the vase-painters had introduced the so-called "pathos formulae" in the usual dance iconography, in order to stress the god-in-spired mania by which the represented dancers were obsessed. The "pathos formulae" are specific and definite iconographic schemata that deeply impress their image on our visual memory. Such schemata are the raised hands, bent torches, up lifted hair, loosened dresses and the tossed-back heads that have been used in the iconography of the ecstatic dances already since the Archaic age. They also occur in other representations, illustrating events of high intensity or extreme emotion (rape, lament, etc.), since the "pathos formulae” record the pitch rather than the content of passion and occurrence.  

The Ancient Pyrrhic and Its Female Dancers Alexandra Goulaki-Voutyra

On Attic vases of the second half of the fifth century B.C. and in many scenes representing armed dances, and especially the pyrrhic, the performers are not men but women. These scenes evidence a special female pyrrhic, unknown otherwise, even from literary sources. The female pyrrhic dancers were usually performing in the nude and only occasionally appear dressed with the attire of the goddess Athena. Their dance was accompanied with the music of a flute, played by a woman. It seems that the female pyrrhic was probably the focus event of entertainment in big and expensive banquets. The vase-painters preferred to represent the choice of a pyrrhic female dancer for a banquet by a rich Athenian as well as the teaching of this peculiar dance.

Dance and Healing in Ancient Greece Anna Lazou

Starting from the identification of the healing functions of art, according to the ancient Greek writers, this article attempts to present the various views on the ancient dance that lead to a revaluation of its modern merit and usefulness. It is therefore argued that the therapeutic effect of the dance depends both on the biological and the physical participation of the dancer in its performance. These components are present mainly in the Dionysiac forms of the ancient Greek dance, the tragic dance in particular, where a paradoxical relation of cosmic harmony and wild expressiveness coexists with the exhilarating identification of the spectator with the dance performer. In the tragic dance of the Classical Greek theatre the ecstasy and the wild passion encounter the reasoning and harmony of the geometric arrangement and motion of dance. Another objective of this article is to locate and identify the traces of the Dionysiac culture in the modern world. Therefore, the traditional dances are studied from the theatrical and sociological aspect as well as the folk feasts and events throughout the year, which envelop whatever has survived from Dionysos and his cult until today.  

Dance Through the Art of Mimicry in the Ancient Greek World Stella Douka, Vasilis Kaimakamis

Theatre was one of the most important pleasures in the life of ancient Greece, serving in the best way the entertainment of the spectators and the artistic creation. In the theatre the spectators were entertaining themselves, while at the same time they were improving their education through their acquaintance with myths, religion and imaginary events that were directly related to their every day life and were presented as reality by the masterly play writers of their time. In all three kinds of ancient theater the members of the chorus and the actors-dancers were singing and dancing or simply dancing with mimic motions, dressed in the appropriate costumes and often wearing masks. The dancers had perfectly learned all the roles they would impersonate, therefore there were many who believed that these performers had many souls in one body. The art of mimicry was directly related with the theatrical dances and was a basic element of the dance performance. The dancer had to combine brains, acting and dancing talent with physical beauty, Thus, the overall result of his performance would fill the spectators with enthusiasm, and the grandeur of the spectacle would hypnotize them, since there were many who regarded the dancers as divine and the artistry of their dance as a gift of god.

Lyre, the Main Dance Instrument in the Hellenic Areas During the Bronze and Iron Age Stelios Psaroudakis

The lyre provided the commonest musical accompaniment to the dances in the Bronze Age and Geometric Aegean as the relevant extant iconography suggests. There are two discernible forms of the instrument: a relatively large, eight-shaped Minoan and Mycenean, seven-stringed, version with arms shaped like long necks of water birds, and a smaller, horse-shoe shaped lyre current among Geometric Hellenes, but also evidenced among the Myceneans, and possibly used by the Minoans. This article points out the problems in interpreting the often conflicting iconography of these early types of lyre and seeks to give answers to pertinent organological questions.

The Ancient Walls of Modon Panagiotis Foutakis

Modon is mainly known for its Venetian castle, an important crossroad for travelers, pilgrims and merchants during the Middle Ages. Nevertheless, some of its fortifications come from ancient Greece and they have not been studied as yet. Therefore, the study and dating of the ancient walls of the castle and of the remains of columns and buildings offers a more complete picture of a site whose long history is not only written on paper, but is still seen on stone.

The Origin of Neoclassicism and the Impact of Ancient Greece on French Revolution Penelope Voutsinou

The base for the birth of Neoclassicism movement was created through the reinstatement of the ideas of the ancient civilization in about the middle of 1700, and was due to a common need for revival. A movement aspiring to reform every form of art and life, dressing included. During the years of French Revolution and through the contribution of arts the ancient Greek spirit was strengthened, since it had been the source for the ideals of the revolution. The ancient Greek attire became identical with the notions of liberty and expression, and as a result a revolutionary, healthy, simple and functional suit was established, that was completely different from any traditional model of the period, as it was promoting and underlining the natural beauty of the body. The French women adopted this revolutionary dress à la Grecque until 1800, when Napoleon came to the throne.

The Greek Influence in the Western and Central Balkans in the Pre-Roman Period: The Case of Serbia and Montenegro Ujes Dubravka

The Greek influence played an important and sometimes decisive role in the cultural development of areas along the Mediterranean coast and in the regions further inland. The alphabet, coinage, fine metal work, high-quality pottery and advanced construction techniques all were important innovations which the Greeks either invented or extensively developed before transmitting them to the barbarians of western and northern Europe. Trade and colonization and the resultant intensification of commercial activity as well as various other kinds of contacts greatly contributed to the dissemination of these cultural achievements of the Greeks among the diverse indigenous societies and their essentially Late Iron Age cultures. The study of the Greek influence in the western and central Balkans started in the nineteenth century by the renowned scholar Sir Arthur J Evans, who later gained everlasting fame due to his excavations in Knossos on the island of Crete. In the 1870s and 1880s he traveled to the present Dalmatia, Montenegro, southern Bosnia, southwestern Serbia and northern FYROM and recorded many of his archaeological observations and discov¬eries in several scientifically valuable books and articles. Even today it does not exist a comprehensive study of the influence Hellenism exercised on the various Illyrian, Thracian and later Celtic tribes who inhabited the western and central Balkans, beyond the northern frontiers of Epirus and Macedonia.  

The different traditions in Hellenistic shipbuilding according to the evidence of underwater archaeology Apostolos Delis

The development of maritime and underwater archaeology in the last few decades, provide evidence that enriches our knowledge of ship building, trade, war at sea and other aspects of the maritime past. This new source of information supplements what was previously available to archaeologists and derived exclusively from pictures and classical literature. This article aims at examining the various Hellenistic shipbuilding techniques used specifically in the Mediterranean. The relevant data comes from a number of shipwrecks that were excavated, mostly merchant ships which, with the sole exception of the Marsala warship, are the vessels that mostly survived underwater due to their cargo. The examination of the various parts of these shipwrecks such as the keel or framework, proved that the “shell-first” method was the one followed by the shipwrights of the period. However, some construction variations were identified, such as the “skeleton-first” method which lead us to think that other shipbuilding techniques were not totally unknown. The protecting of the ship’s hull with caulking and lead sheathing were also examined as well as the variety of materials used. The timber used to build vessels was also evaluated according to the type and shape of the wood.

The Oedipus Complex and Freud Panagiotis Sikiotis

Freud used the term "Oedipus complex", the name deriving from the homonymous Sophoclean tragedy, to characterize a specific psychological relation between father, mother and child in our modern society: the child, throughout the phallic stage up to the fifth or sixth year of age, shows a strong attraction to the parent of the opposite sex, while at the same time he behaves with jealousy and rivalrous hostility to the parent of the same sex. This complex phenomenon is clearly exposed in the ancient Greek tragedy, some twenty-five centuries before Freud's codification.

Εκπαιδευτικές σελίδες: Οι αρχαίοι θεοί: Ο Δίας, ο μικρότερος εγγονός της Μητέρας Γης Μαρίζα Ντεκάστρο

Τεύχος 91, Ιούνιος 2004 No. of pages: 146
Κύριο Θέμα: “Ο χορός παρά Βυζαντινοίς” του Φ. Κουκουλέ Ευαγγελία Άντζακα-Βέη

Ο χορός στο Βυζάντιο Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα

Ο χορός στην ύστερη αρχαιότητα. Μαρτυρίες κειμένων και παραστάσεων Παναγιώτα Ασημακοπούλου-Ατζακά

Ο χορός ως κοινωνική πράξη στην καθημερινή ζωή των Βυζαντινών Αφέντρα Μουτζάλη

Ο βυζαντινός χορός σε κοσμικούς και ιερούς χώρους Diane Touliatos-Miles

Χεῖρ’ ἐπὶ καρπῷ ή Το ταξίδι ενός εικονογραφικού μοτίβου στο χρόνο Αντωνία Ρουμπή

Ο γυναικείος χορός μέσα από βυζαντινές και μεταβυζαντινές εικονογραφικές πηγές Μαρία Βουτσά

Ο χορός στη μεταβυζαντινή μνημειακή εκκλησιαστική ζωγραφική Μαγδαληνή Παρχαρίδου-Αναγνώστου

Χορός και περιηγητές Αλεξάνδρα Γουλάκη-Βουτυρά

Μουσικά όργανα στους χορούς και τις διασκεδάσεις των Βυζαντινών Νίκος Μαλιάρας

Άλλα θέματα: Γυναίκες, μόδα, ένδυση στον αθηναϊκό Τύπο (τέλη 19ου αιώνα) Ελένη Αλεξανδρή

Ανιχνεύοντας τον κοινό ορεινό πολιτισμικό χώρο της Μεσογείου. Οι περιπτώσεις της Ροδόπης και της Καταλονίας Νίκος Ευστρατίου, Μαρία Ντίνου, Ευθυμία Άλφα

Εικαστική και λογοτεχνική εξιστόρηση πολεμικών γεγονότων της γεωμετρικής εποχής στο Αιγαίο Φωτεινή Ζαφειροπούλου

Η “Λιόκρουση” του Μίνου Αργυράκη Αναστασία Μανδάλα

Οι χειροπελέκεις: Η ένταξή τους στη γνωστική εξέλιξη του ανθρώπου, η μορφοτεχνολογία τους, τα ελληνικά δεδομένα Χρήστος Ματζάνας

Οι λέοντες της Βενετίας Θάνος Παπαθανασόπουλος

Συζήτηση πάνω στη βασική ορολογία της παλαιολιθικής τυποτεχνολογίας Νίκος Α. Πουλιανός

Η βασιλική πόλη των θεών και των ναών Βίκτωρ Σαριγιαννίδης

Νεολιθική Αυγή Καστοριάς: ένα χωριό πριν από 7.500 χρόνια Γεωργία Στρατούλη

Μουσείο: Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο Καρύστου Αμαλία Καραπασχαλίδου

Ενημερωτικές στήλες και απόψεις: Aρχαιομετρικά Nέα Γιάννης Μπασιάκος

Από το Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology, τεύχος 16/2 (2003) Σοφία Αντωνιάδου

Αρχαιολογικά Νέα: ειδήσεις, εκθέσεις, συνέδρια, διαλέξεις, βιβλία, επιστολές Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα (επιμ.)

Πληροφορική: Γύρω από τη δημοσίευση, έντυπη και ηλεκτρονική, στην Αρχαιολογία (2) Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

English summaries: Dance in Byzantium Katerina Tsekoura

In late antiquity, Christians dance both in saints’ festivals and in older pagan celebrations. The so called “hand on wrist” dance step often depicted in the illustrations of ancient dances in a ring, is repeated in the Byzantine and post Byzantine period. The people of the Byzantine Empire dance the syrmos, kordakos, pyrriche, geranos and ornos, not only in church but in a secular environment. The dances are accompanied by flutes, guitars, percussion and pipe organ. In the post Byzantine period a usual subject for illustration is the dance of the Thanksgivers (Ainon) which has a possible soteriological content. This dance charmingly expresses the joy of life in the Church and is an euphoric show put on by the faithful in Paradise.

Dance in Late antiquity. Textual and representational evidence Panayota Assimakopoulou-Atzaka

In pre-Christian communities, dance was closely related to the worship of nature and of the gods. After the prevalence of Christianity and until the end of late antiquity the ritual character of dance was eliminated not only because of its obvious reference to paganism but also because of the strict ethical code of the new religion. It seems, however, that in spite of the fierce polemic of the Church Fathers, dance as a primeval corporeal expression closely connected with human nature, remained an important component of social life throughout the entire era of Late Antiquity. Eloquent and valuable accounts of dance occur in texts, in spite of their admonishing character. There are also many depictions of dance in other art forms. Music and dance were indispensable to fairs and festivals surviving from the idololatric antiquity, but were also performed at the feasts venerating saints and martyrs. This phenomenon was especially castigated by Christian writers. Dance played an important part at social events such as the matrimonial ceremony, while at the symposia, professional dancers were often invited to entertain the guests. Dionysiac figures such as satyrs and maenads are depicted in art forms of the times such as on mosaics and textiles. Dance was also related to the funerary iconography of the time. Dances are to be found represented in mosaics and wall-paintings of tombs of the second and 6th century AD.

Dance as a Social Act in the Everyday Life of the Byzantines Afendra Moutzali

Dance and music played an important role in the everyday life of the Byzantines as it becomes evident from the texts and the preserved works of art. The subjects of the Byzantine State were dancing on many secular and religious occasions: weddings, religious feasts and festivals, banquets, victory celebrations of crucial battles, pillorying of defeated enemies. Dancing was taking place in houses, palaces, the Hippodrome of Constantinople, in streets and squares, in dens or in the country with the participation of musicians, professional female dancers or jesters, in spite of the grumbling and the strict, negative attitude of the Church.

Byzantine Dance in Secular and Sacred Places Diane Touliatos-Miles

Byzantine dance has its origin from Antiquity with dances, such as the Bibasis or the traditional round dancing that have been transmitted from the ancient Greeks. Aristides Quintilianus in his treatise About Music gives information about this continuation of dancing in the first centuries ad and its influences from the ancient Greeks, such as the various meters for the choreography of different dances or the continuation of analo¬gous dances, like laments and war dances. Similar to ancient Greece, Byzantium included dances in theatrical performances, such as ballets and pantomimes, the latter following the tradition of the Hellenic mimetic dance. Much of the information on Byzantine dancing comes from the admonishments of the Church Fathers but also from those, such as Libanios, Michael Psellus, Niketas Choniates, who condoned dancing in their published orations. The Byzantine Empire was a large pluralistic nation where different types of music and dance could be found m various regions. Furthermore, the society evolved to allow dancing in Christian sacred places, such as the church. Examples of dancing in sacred places are the moirologia (=laments), which were eventually allowed to be chanted and danced in a circular movement in the narthex of the church, and the Dance of Isaiah, which is a thrice encirclement of the vestment table by the bride and groom, in the Byzantine rite of matrimony The Empire was also a society where dances thrived in the secular environment. Secular places offered more possibilities for dance through the mimesis or pan¬tomime of the theatre, the dancing at symposia; and the street dancing in festivals and carnivals, such as the Festival of Agathe that celebrated with dance the only honorable profession for a woman, which was the cloth-making manufacturing. The taverns of the larger cities were also known to have instrumental entertainment to which men and women danced, while clapping hands. The Imperial Palace was a secular environment for dancing at the most sophisticated level. Ballets were performed at dinner-feasts for the Emperor, usually in the manner of round dances. The pageant of Gothic dancing, which was also observed at the Imperial Palace, exemplifies an exotic type of dancing along with the Byzantine traditional elements of dance. Dancing in secular places also included lascivious dances, such as the Kordax. But even more extreme, orgiastic and nude dances were performed as they are described in the fifteenth-century satire. The Comedy of Katablattas. In short, Byzantine dancing encompassed high and low levels of society in sacred and secular places.  

“Wrist Holding” or the Route of an Iconographic Motif Through Time Antonia Roumbi

In 1619/20 the painter Michael from Linotopi, Epirus, represents the subject of the Praises on the north section of the bema vault in the church of Hagios Menas in the village Monodendri in the district of Zagoria, Epirus. In this wall painting the artist copies accurately an al¬most identical model of 1599 that comes from Antiquity: The importance of the round dance of the eight, luxuriously dressed, women depicted there, who dance outdoors holding each other's hand by the wrist, lies in the repetition of the Homeric mottf “wrist holding" by a sixteenth-century painter of humble origin. Both literature and art relate this characteristic position of hands with dance in ancient Greece. This motif is constantly used in the iconography of the ancient Greek dance and reappears in Post-Byzantine representations from the sixteenth century on, as a substantial number of monuments from these historical and cultural eras proves.

The Female Dance in Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Iconography. A First Approach Maria Voutsa

Attempts have been made in recent years to illuminate aspects of the everyday life and art in Byzantium. However, the scholar faces a serious problem in the relevant research, due to the tack of direct written sources, since the traditions, institutions and customs of the people liv¬ing in urban centers or in the country are disseminated orally, therefore they have not been recorded or studied by historians. The reconstruction of dance and of the status of female dancers in Byzantium is a difficult undertaking. Nevertheless, the absence of direct sources is counterbalanced by the information drawn from the works of art and from indirect references that are always examined in relation to the historical period lo which they belong. Thus, it has been established that dance, interwoven with the ancient Greek tradition, is originally performed in theatres and is later incorporated in official ceremonies, taking place in the Hippodrome and in the Great Palace, in the matrimonial rites of all social classes as well as in popular celebrations, where it appears in the form of folk religious dance. Dance, being at the beginning a more or less individual action, with intense motion and strong twists of the torso, is progressively transformed to a group, calm and decent performance, where the female dancers are linked together by holding each others wrist or shoulder. Finally, the status of the dancer in Byzantine society changes. As time passes the professional dancers are not portrayed any more, while the continuously diminishing opposition of the Church against dance allows simple, everyday women to dance just for pleasure and sheer entertainment.

Dance in the Post-Byzantine Monumental Religious Painting (15th-19th Century) Magdalini Parcharidou-Anagnostou

Dance, an act closely connected with worship, al¬though has often been rejected and condemned by the Church Fathers as immoral retained its special position both in worship and in everyday life. In the Post-Byzantine years, where the repertoire of representa tional arts continues that of the Byzantine era, dance is represented in monumental painting, in particular, which has become the most effective popular illustrated ecclesiastical book of the period. Thus, among the oldest subjects incorporating dance are the ones related with theatrical in structure scenes (Mocking of Christ) and banquets (Banquet of Herod with the Dance of Salome), as well as with other festive activities (Cross-mg of the Red Sea with the Dance of Manam or the Praises with the dance of Psalm 149 and 150). At the same time dance is also present in newly introduced subjects [Life of Saint George, Parable of the Prodigal Son. Three Youths in the Furnace, Allegory of the Supreme Jerusalem), which belong in reality to the established iconographical program of Byzantine painting. However, the Praises, illustrating the Psalms 148-150, is the subject par excellence in which dance is de¬picted Dance in the Praises, an individual or group performance or even a harmonious congregation of believers and saints, is mainly depicting the psalmic verses 149.3 and 150.4 and offers a good chance for the representation not only of specific kinds of dance, like the round dance, but also of the dressing habits and the jewelry of the time. Furthermore, by consider¬ing the relevant to the Resurrection notations of the Psalms' editors and the historical practice of the Church, which includes dance performed in the church on Easter day, we can trace the symbolic, soteriologic content of dance. In conclusion, dance in the Post-Byzantine years has been considered as the exhilarating expression of the believers in Paradise, and at the same time as the direct, appealing way for manifesting the joy of the life in the Church, a joy absent from the hard reality of the Ottoman period.  

Dance and Travelers: Interpreting Sixteenth- to Nineteenth-Century Representations Alexandra Goulaki-Voutyra

The representations of modern Greek dance from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century are examined in this article, as they have come down to us through the engravings, drawings and paintings of the European travelers of the time. It is a rich illustrative material, a valuable archive of representations in which details of the everyday life of modern Greeks have been recorded. These details often transmit a variety of information about dance in a period that any other relevant evidence is rather limited Furthermore, they are also related to the “discovery" of modern Greeks by the Europeans and prove how the latter “saw” and regarded them in a critical phase of their history, revealing the attitude, apprehension and culture through which they were approaching the Greeks. Already since the mid-eighteenth century the travelers systematically connect ancient Greece with its modem version. In the fertile climate of Romanticism the interest in the ethnic and folk tradition, in music and dance is born and developed. Thus, issues concerning the synthesis or the models of the aforementioned representations throw light on the procedure of creating these works and at the same time clarify, as possible, the picture of the modern Greek dance tradition.

Musical Instruments in the Balls and Festive Events of the Byzantines Nikos Maliaras

The Byzantine secular music has not been preserved in our time as opposed to the ecclesiastical one. We can draw information about it only indirectly, by studying historical and other texts as well as relevant iconographical scenes. The secular music of Byzantium was played primarily in festivities, feasts and celebrations on the occasion of various Church anniversaries or social events and it was usually combined with singing and dancing. Although the Church officials slated these kinds of protestations, because they were occasionally interspersed with shows of indecent character, however they did not managed to abrogate them. Various instruments of the flute family and also string instruments, related to the later lutes, were used in these occasions. There were also played multi-stringed instruments of various sizes and forms, such as the psaltery. Their names vary and they often derive from ancient Greek words, although these instruments do not necessarily originate from ancient ones. Arched stringed instruments were also used in Byzantium from the tenth century on. Furthermore, various sorts of percussion instruments accompanied the rest, while quite often groups of diverse instruments were formed according to the occasion. Last, the multi-piped instrument, which participated in the court ceremonies in general and stood for the official imperial symbol, played a specific role in festivities and banquets.

Ph. Koukoules’ “Dance Among the Byzantines”. Critical Remarks Evangelia Antzaka-Vei

The assemblage of sources and indications about dance in Byzantium, published by Phaedon Koukoules in 1938, still remains a valuable treatise owing to the scientific material located by the profound specialist in the public and private life of the Byzantines; and to the fact that since then an overall presentation of the subject has not been attempted. However, the “reading” of these sources poses quite many methodological problems, which create serious side effects as regards their factual conclusions, although they also characterize the work of the Greek literati of that period and can be answered by the then prevailing priorities.

Minos Argyrakis’ “Liokrousi” Anastasia Mandala

In 1977, during his stay in the old, traditional settlement of Koutsounari, in Ierapetra, Crete, Minos Argyrakis made wall paintings in the taverna of “Mrs Lena” Nakos as well as in her dining room. In his compositions one finds his favourite subject matter. The god Pan and the Mermaid, the sun and the moon. The grandmother dressed in black and her black clad Cretan husband with the dimly visible villages of Elounda in the background. The limpid world of the sea with its cuttlefish, seahorses, plants, flatfish and the mermaid.

The royal city of gods and temples Viktor Sariyannidis

The thirty- year long excavations that took place in Northeastern Turkmenistan, at Kara Kum, one of the largest deserts on earth, proved that one of the oldest centres of human civilization existed there four thousand years ago, by the banks of the Amu Darya river on the Murgab Delta. As it seems, a period of intense drought followed the beginning of the xerothermic era towards the end of 2000 BC. This forced tribes coming from the various centres of the ancient world and especially from northern Syria to abandon their lands in search of a new homeland rich in water and fertile soil, essential to their rural way of life. After crossing plains, mountains and the Iranian deserts of Dasht-i-Lut and Sasht-i- Margo they at last reached the oases of Eastern Iran and the regions close to the Koppeh Dagh mountains and the Murgab Delta valley. These foreign tribes settled and founded a new civilization in this fertile land where the Murgab river flowed.

Neolithic Avgi in Kastoria. A settlement 7500 years old Georgia Stratouli

A few years ago, in the rural district of Avgi of Kastoria in Western Macedonia, the ploughing of the fields brought to light remnants of a prehistoric settlement stretching over about seven acres of land. A research excavation began recently by the IZ Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities with the full material and moral support of the local community. According to the first archaeological and archaeometrical estimations, the site of this settlement had been in use, probably at intervals, for many generations between 5600 and 5000 BC approximately. The Neolithic Avgi settlement had developed on mildly sloping ground, in the area of a Mesohellenic rut, with a hill, a rich hydrographic network and abundant argilliferous matter. The deciduous oak forests round the settlement were easily accessible to the inhabitants of the settlement and the surrounding land was sufficient for cultivation and cattle-raising. The picture that emerged from the excavation of the years 2002 and 2003 over an area of 750 square metres was that of a large settlement of the mid sixth century BC presenting two phases of architecture. Parts of four or five rectangular in plan buildings have been revealed with ample open-air spaces of multiple use. The basic building materials of the settlement were wood, clay, and plants ,aquatic or other. Piles of tree trunks were arranged sparsely , interconnected with a mesh of vertical and horizontal branches covered by successive layers of processed clay. The inhabitants of Neolithic Avgi were farmers and cattle breeders. They also collected and hunted and participated in trans-local exchange networks through which they got mainly “exotic” goods such as jewelry made of knuckles. The immediate operation of an archaeological laboratory equipped with modern technology is one of the targets of the long-range research program of the Avgi excavations. Provision has also been made for the extensive and thorough excavation of the entire Neolithic settlement, the creation of an archaeological area that can be visited and the operation of educational programs on Experimental Archaeology.

Representational and Literary Narration of War Events in the Geometric Aegean Photini Zaphiropoulou

In Paroikia, Paros island, the main cemetery of the ancient town, which had been in use from the late eighth to the third second century B.C., came to light. The area started to be used in the last decades of eighth century, when, after a battle two large trenches were dug for the burial of the urns holding the cremated bones of about 160 men. Two of these vessels are decorated with war scenes, which present iconographic data unknown from such an early period, therefore they essentially reform our knowledge about the beginning of ancient Greek painting.

Hand-axes: Their Incorporation into the Evolution of Human Knowledge, their Form Technology, and the Greek Data Christos Matzanas

The hand-axes represent one of the most important technological achievements of humanity and attest the conquest of a higher stage in the evolution of human intellect, when the concept of symmetry is realized. The earlier hand-axes date from the Lower Paleolithic, they continue to be made until an advanced phase of the Middle Paleolithic, but they stop to be produced about 50,000 years ago. They represent the "characteristic fossil" of the Acheulean civilization and signal, through their evolution, its various chronological periods. According to the research data available so far, although the earlier Greek hand-axes do not seem to be older than 300,000 years, however the existence of this civilization in Greece is not questioned. Artifacts of similar technology are the bifacial Mousterian wedges, which probably represent the development of the hand-axes, and the arrow heads of the recent Prehistory, which attest the reinvention of the old method many thousands years later. The experimental reproduction of the hand-axes technology and OF the bifacial artifacts in general does not present special difficulties. However, the choice of the appropriate shape of the original stone core (blank), from which the tool is made, plays a very important role for the quality of the finished artifact.

Discussion on the Basic Terminology of the Paleolithic Typotechnology Nikos Poulianos

This article has two objectives, to attempt the presentation of the basic Greek terms referring to the Paleolithic typotechnol­ogy, which are used so far and to propose a discussion on the alteration of certain old terms or even the adoption of new, probably more appropriate, ones.

The Lions of Venice Thanos Papathanasopoulos

When the Venetian admiral Francesco Morosini (1618-1694) returned to Venice, having completed successfully his military campaigns against the Turks in the Greek territory (1634-1687), he brought with him two marble lions to form an assemble with the two others already decorating the city. These marble sculptures were not simply spoils of war from the conquered Greek land, but something more significant, since every lion representation symbolized in the eyes of the Venetians Mark the Evangelist, that is the patron saint of the city, and by extension the naval supremacy of Venice. Moreover, Venice exhibited a wide variety of lions of each kind: painted or carved ones in marble or in any other stone. In the settlements of the Serenissima in its various provinces carved built-in lions were prevailing in prominent places or in the masonry, in particular of fortresses which were erected or fortified by the commissioners of Venice in its trading posts. The lions Morosini brought were placed in the square, in front of the entrance of the naval port, for the festive celebration of the successful naval campaign of the popular doge and the return of the “Peloponnese" under the authority of Venice.

Searching for the Common Cultural Space of Highland Mediterranean: The Case of Rhodope and Catalonia Nikos Efstratiou, Maria Ntinou, Efthymia Alpha

The ethnographical and archaeological research simultaneously realized in situ in two highland Mediterranean areas, in the framework of a joint project of Greek and Spanish archaeologists, promoted the common characteristics of a particular way of living, of a series of economic and social choices and of ideological features. The choice of the two mountainous regions is due to the judgment that bygone ways of life and behavior, which have been preserved through the application of specific strategies in such an environment of isolation and recourse, are most appropriate for study. Furthermore, they help the understanding of basic cultural characteristics of the Mediterranean and lead to the detection of the "longue durée" history. The two-year comparative research was carried out in the Pomak village of Sarakini on Mount Rhodope and in the highland district of Alicante in Southern Spain. It included the recording and study of the basic productive activities of the neighboring communities, such as the nomadic cattle-raising and the or¬ganization and use of space. The different versions of a common Mediterranean cattie-raising activity in these areas were pinpointed and studied in their historical and cultural contact. Similar ethno-archaeological research represents only a part of the broader archaeological and anthropological issue that also describes the content of the so-called Highland Archaeology. This scientific field tries to approach through time the organized human presence in Alpine, semi-mountainous and highland regions that exhibit peculiar environmental and cultural features.  

Women, Fashion, Clothing in the Late Nineteenth-Century Athenian Press Eleni Alexandri

The research on the fashion of women's clothing in the late nineteenth-century Athens is based on the articles published m the issues of newspapers and magazines that have been preserved in the Greek Literary and Historical Archive. Thus, the tendencies of the fashion of the period and also the likes and dislikes of the Athenian women, who adored the French vogue, are fully described, while the famous dressmakers of the time, Athenians and Parisians, as well as the fashionable textiles, designs and colors in the succession of seasons and years are introduced. Furthermore, the dresses in fashion are thoroughly described and their sewing patterns, published in quite many cases in the nineteenth-century Athenian press, are presented.

Εκπαιδευτικές σελίδες: Οι αρχαίοι θεοί: Οι περιπέτειες των θεών του Ολύμπου Μαρίζα Ντεκάστρο

Τεύχος 92, Σεπτέμβριος 2004 No. of pages: 130
Κύριο Θέμα: Το κλαρίνο και το τραγούδι. Παρατηρήσεις στη χορευτική μουσική στο Πωγώνι Ευαγγελία Άντζακα-Βέη

Χορός και συγγένεια ή η σειρά χορού στο γαμήλιο γλέντι Μαρία Βελιώτη-Γεωργοπούλου

Το Μπουρανί Τιρνάβου ως έθιμο και ο χορός του – το γαϊτανάκι Ελένη Καρυώτου

Εθνογραφίες χορού Ρένα Λουτζάκη

Χορός και (ανα)παραστάσεις. Τα όρια και η ανάγκη της εθνογραφίας Ιωάννης Μάνος

Χώρος και χορός. Η περίπτωση των αλβανών μεταναστών στην Ελλάδα Ζωή Μάργαρη

Δρώμενο, αρχαιολογία και κοινότητα: μελέτη μιας περίπτωσης Χρήστος Παπακώστας

Ανθρωπολογική αντιπρόταση: ο χορός ως πολιτισμική διαδικασία Μαρία Παπαπαύλου

Η μουσική και ο χορός στη ζωή δυο γυναικών από το Άγκιστρο Σερρών Μαρίκα Ρόμπου-Λεβίδη

Χορός και ταυτοτική διεκδίκηση στη Γουμένισσα Αριάδνη-Δάφνη Στεργιοπούλου

“Ζει ο βασιλιάς Δίας;” Χορευτικές μυθομουσικολογίες στην ορεινή Κρήτη Μαρία Χναράκη

Άλλα θέματα: Δούρα Ευρωπός, η πρωιμότερη χριστιανική εκκλησία Δέσποινα Ιωσήφ

Peter Paul Rubens και Θεόκριτος. Θεωρίες γύρω από τη βουκολική θεματογραφία Ναυσικά Λιτσαρδοπούλου

Το Ιερό των Μεγάλων Θεών στη Σαμοθράκη μέσα από την τεχνολογία Απόστολος Μαυρίδης

Η νεότερη αρχιτεκτονική μας κληρονομιά. Η προβληματική της προστασίας της Ανδρέας Συμεών

Παράδοση και καινοτομία στα υφαντά της Άρτεμης Αγγέλα Ταμβάκη

Ζωικά και ανθρώπινα οστά στα αρχαιολογικά σύνολα. Προβληματική και διαχωρισμός Αναστασία Τσαλίκη

Κοινωνία και τεχνικές: οι επιλογές της παραδοσιακής τυροκομίας Ευάγγελος Καραμανές

Μουσείο: Αρχαιολογική Συλλογή Λουτρών Αιδηψού Αμαλία Καραπασχαλίδου

Ενημερωτικές στήλες και απόψεις: Αρχαιολογικά Νέα: ειδήσεις, εκθέσεις, συνέδρια, διαλέξεις, βιβλία Κατερίνα Τσεκούρα (επιμ.)

Πληροφορική: Ανταπόκριση από το συνέδριο Museums and the Web 2004 Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

Aρχαιομετρικά Nέα Γιάννης Μπασιάκος

English summaries: An Anthropological Counter-proposal: Dance as a Cultural Process Maria Papapavlou

This article reviews in brief the way in which classical anthropological theories influence the study of dance and aims at connecting them with the modern anthropological theory. Two are its particular objectives: to enhance the scientific profit from approaching the study of dance, profit obtained through the performance studies and the anthropology of body and senses. And, concurrently, to discuss the significance of dance in the formation of new cultural identities. The references to ethnographies inspired by this modern orientation are made with the purpose to present the new emerging thematic issues, which, in turn, can enrich the product of anthropological theory with ethnographical material.

Dance and Kindred or the “Turn in Dance” During the Wedding Feast Maria Velioti-Georgopoulou

In Didyma, a village of about 1200 souls in south Argolida, most of the inhabitants are kindred, because of the high percentage of endogamy and ritual parenthood with non-relatives. During the wedding feast, in which round dances are performed, the so-called "turn in dance" is observed, a term which means: a. in what turn each group of relatives will dance and b. in what turn the guests-members of the groups of relatives will participate as first dancers in each dance performed by such a group. The “turn in dance" in the wedding fiesta is dictated by an informal but extremely strict "protocol". Kindred is the first and major criterion in determining the turn of dancing of the groups and also that of the first dancers within the groups. However, an apparent preference for direct participants in the matrimony ritual over all the rest is made. More specifically, the choice depends on the degree of relationship the groups and individuals have with the newly married: the closer relations take always precedence. additional criteria are: a. sex as regards the family status. Thus, according to an older rule the husbands nave a lead over wives - recently this situation seems to have been reversed -, while the single females dance before the married males and their sisters, in order to become obvious that the single maidens are available for marriage: b. age - the older have the lead over the younger, and c. origin, in relation to the local community the “foreigners" follow the person who has invited them in the "turn in dance". The violation of the "turn in dance" during the wedding celebration is a very serious offence and leads to quarrel and fight, since it is equivalent to discredit upon the relation bonds on which the local community is primarily based. These bonds are materialized in solidarity and contribute to the social coherence. Therefore, their undisturbed validity leads to the community's effort to preserve all the elements, which contribute to its function, well-being and perpetuation.  

The “Bourani” of Tyrnavos as a Custom and Its Dance. The Maypole Eleni Karyotou

"Bourani" is a custom of phallocratic character of Carnival with dance and maypole as two of its basic components. This article aims at showing how the members of the Tyrnavos society understand the concept of "dance" in the framework of "bourani". Therefore, the ways in which the spectators see and interpret the "dance" and the custom performers themselves describe and characterize their “dance” activity are examined. The Association of Maypole-Bourani plays an important role in the realization of the performance that the entire population of the small town has in mind. Therefore, this article deals not only with the description of the custom and the presentation of the course of the Association from the time of its foundation to the present, but also with the meaning of "dance" among the participants of “bourani”, as well as in the society of Tyrnavos in general. The symbolic image of maypole related to the custom is an element of catalytic importance for the explanation and analysis that follow.

Dance and Contention of Identity in Goumenissa, Kilkis Ariadni-Daphni Steriopoulou

The community of Goumenissa in the prefecture of Kilkis appears to be a heterogeneous society, a cultural crossroads that is characterized by a rich dance activity. Two distinct dance events, the performance of dance groups and the merriment in the music of clarinets respectively prove that dance in Goumenissa is not simply an expression of cultural identity, but also a form of many-faceted contest that reflects the conscious or unconscious choice of society for coherence or diversity. The interchanging and intercomplementary identities pursue to project either the local and/or broader national symbols or the specific cultural characteristics of the occasional ethnic-cultural groups.

Clarinet and Song. Some Remarks on the Dancing Music of Pogoni, Epirus Evangelia Antzaka-Vei

In Pogoni, Epirus, and elsewhere in Greece, certain dancers categorically ask the musicians to accompany fie dance song they have chosen to dance "only with the clarinet", that is with music, and to omit the lyrics. This attitude is in opposition to the fact that in recent years more and more professional singers come to and participate in folk festivals. This article deals with the various aspects of the dance music of Pogoni. Thus, it examines the formation of the sequence of melodies and dances performed by me occasional leader of the dance, which is conventionally mentioned here as “suite”; it investigates the correspondence between individual music and dance components in their historical and social context; and, finally, it attempts to interpret the different practices exercised for the “consumption” of dance music in the feasts and festivals of Pogoni.

Music and Dance in the Life of Two Women from Agistro, Serres Marika Rombou-Levidi

The case of two female, eighty-four years old, folk musicians who live in the village Agistro in Eastern Macedonia is presented in this article. These women through lute playing and dancing express the concepts related to the special identity of their community, which consists of indigenous inhabitants and immigrants. Their female nature in combination with their capacity as folk musicians results to a very rare phenomenon not only in Eastern Macedonia, but also in Greece in general. Their attachment to lute playing and dancing is a simple everyday relationship, which is in perfect harmony with the traditional understanding of music and dance. We have to do here with a relationship of initiation rather than teaching, which is usually the case in modern societies. Furthermore, it is about a bond that the two women experience as "drunkenness", as an exhilaration beyond natural boundaries, as a gift, a talent that is flowing in their veins. Thus, by approaching this very special and constant association of these two women with music and dance, we observe how they have managed, consciously or unconsciously, to overstep multiple diversities in their lives through this everyday practice.

Dance and Re-presentations. The Boundaries and the Need of Ethnography loannis Manos

The article deals with the issue of representing Greek traditional dances, approached both through their visualized stage performance by organized groups of dancers and the relevant literature describing the dances of a certain region. The analysis of a dance event and the examination of texts referring to the dances of the Florina region enhance the limitations and problems resulting from the understanding of social reality. The article pinpoints the need of Ethnography as a means of producing knowledge about dance and pro¬poses the adoption of such an approach to civilization, so that the polymorphism of cultural phenomena could be promoted. The in situ research of dance can locate the diversity and complexity of concepts prevailing among the individuals-members of a local community, as well as the different modes of their kinetic representation. The subjectivity of the ethnographical knowledge, and consequently the departure from the idea that a scholar can have an authentic opinion about dance, and the need for a continuous rejudgement of the relevant research are determinative parameters for the production of reliable knowledge about dance and for the understanding of a community through dance.

Rites, Archaeology and Community: A Case Study Christos Papakostas

The ritual performances are customary expressions, widely disseminated in Greece that are directly related to the cycle of time, especially in rural communities. Apart from this, they also constitute cultural practices with dynamic context, through which the community enhances its present and past. Therefore, the ritual performances set the framework in which the community negotiates its identity and its relation to "the others”. In the case of Kali Vrysi, in the area of Drama, the ritual performance of the twelve-day long "babougeras" becomes the major expression of the community with a rhetoric dimension. This rhetoric is developed as a power counterbalancing the national and cultural stigmatization that the community experienced in the past. Through this ritual performance the community is mainly pursuing its association with the national identity and the elimination of any relevant controversy. The characterization of this type of ritual as "Dionysiac”, the results of the excavation at the boundaries of the community and the combination of folk and archaeological data supply the community with the assets necessary for the reinforcement of its arguments in any negotiation.  

Is King Zeus Alive?” Dance Mytho-musicologies in the Mountainous Crete Maria Xnaraki

In order to conceal the cries of the new-born Zeus, so as Cronus, the divine baby's father, not to find and eat him, the Kouretes, the daemons-guadrians of Zeus, invented and danced a vivacious dance still performed in the village Anogeia on Mount Ida (pres. Psyloreitis), the highest mountain of Crete. Like the Cretan-born Zeus, another god, Hyacinth, is born and dies every year. Apollo, the god of Harmony and Music, charms Hyacinth by playing his lyre, but in the athletic contest of discus-throwing that follows Hyacinth is killed by mistake by Apollo's disc. Since 1998 the inhabitants of Anogeia venerate Hyacinth as the twenty-years old martyr of love and eternal youth, who gave his life for Christ. The villagers choose to demonstrate the firm ties connecting past and present through music and dancing, which, as they believe, go back to primeval cultural schemes four thousand, or maybe more, years old. These music and dance “rites" are performed annually in the mountainous Anogeia and are called Hyacmtheia. They are the inhabitants' libations to Hyacinth and Zeus, the gods to whom they owe their uniqueness. Conclusively, by music playing and dancing they raise monuments in history and memory and built what they consider as "Cretanism". The inhabitants of Anogeia believe that they are worthy descendants of the Kouretes and keepers of their tradition, their convictions founded on music and dance performances like Hyacintheia. My ethnographical study is based on an in situ research I made in the summer of 1998 as well as on past experience and active participation in music and dance events, being myself of Cretan origin.  

Dance and Place: The Case of the Albanians in Greece Zoi Margari

The broader region of Epirus, inside and beyond the present national boundaries, was a place of important historical events that led to the creation of special socio-economic conditions and, by extension, to the creation of cultural formations. The diverse political developments in Albania and Greece had a catalytic influence on the cultural physiognomy of the Greek-born population, settled in the southern areas of the neighboring land. The migratory stream that transformed Greece from a country of forwarding immigrants to a land of receiving them has played a major role in the creation of a new socio-economic reality for the frontier countries. However, the embodiment of the Greek-born immigrants from Albania in the "Mother Greece" environment proved to be a very difficult task: in their strive to become acceptable, they have tried to adjust themselves to the prevailing conceptions and myths concerning the members of the Greek minority of "Northern Epirus'" created by the Greeks. This peculiar effort of Hellenization presents very interesting cultural negotiations, since the local as well the migratory societies seem to draw out from oblivion "common traditions, customs and institutions" that have been forgotten. The dance of the metics, as an “overall social phenomenon", is one of the basic elements for expressing cultural identity and at the same time one of its major structural elements. The dancing expression of the immigrants moves like a pendulum among the borders of Greek , "'North Epirotan" and "communal" dance reper-toire. In the case of these people before their immigration, place and dance were composing a singular representation of their cultural physiognomy, in which both these elements had a perfect coherence. However their kinetic expression of dance and place interaction after their settlement in Greece seems to be shaped according to the geographical substance of immigration. Nevertheless, it allows in reality the detection of various re-constructions of the "place” of their society, since they are far away from their ancestral hearths, which can be achieved through the participation of their members in dance performances. Therefore, based on the influence that the new settlement has on the individual and collective level, we win locate and enhance the characteristic elements that compose the dance identity of the immigrants from Albany to Greece.

Animal and Human Bones in Archaeological Ensembles. Identification Problems Anastasia Tsaliki

The holistic, bicultural approach tends to become today the established method in the study of human residues. Therefore, Bioarchaeology, by combining elements from various sources, collects skeletal as well as cultural data and thus advances to the study of ancient man. There is a mutual influence between man and his environment, since he has always been in contact with the vegetable and animal world. Given that the bones recovered in excavations are usually in a bad state of preservation and that the animal and human bones are mixed, an increased difficulty is created in their identification procedure. It is important the modern archaeologist to realize how significant the skeletal residues are for archaeology. Therefore, he/she should be able to distinguish the human from the animal bones, in order to ask for the participation of the appropriate specialists for their further meticulous examination and study. The basic morphology and mechanisms of the animal bones, the understanding of the function of the human skeleton and the available sketches of comparative anatomy can contribute to the achievement of this objective.

The Modern Greek Architectural Heritage: Problems for Its Protection Andreas N. Symeon

The protection of the modern architectural heritage in Greece has been mobilized very late and has achieved very little. Thus, today the issue of protection is essentially confined in a rearguard action, since the looting of our modern monumental wealth has been almost com¬pleted. The efforts for the protection of the remnants of our architectural heritage have been channeled towards two basic directions: the characterization of isolated buildings, mostly Neoclassical ones, as “preservable" and the proclamation of some hundreds of settlements as "traditional". However, the institutional framework that has been created does not suffice for the protection of our architectural heritage mainly for three reasons: 1. Our legislation does not cover entirely the object under protection. It is quite indicative that only a few buildings dating from the phase of Neoeclecticism of the early twentieth century or from the inter-war period have been characterized as “preservable". While in the so-called traditional settlements the protection is limited to special building regulations that hardly or at all provide for the protection of the existing architectural wealth, the architectural ensembles and the public space in particular. 2. Since the existing institutional framework promotes the passive rather than the active protection, the latter should be reinforced through appropriate, effective motives. 3. In the way the protection is materialized, it is confined to the reconstruction of some building shells, but it does nothing at all for their incorporation in the life of the modern settlement. This approach often contributes to the disorganization of the social tissue and to the creation of a ghetto phenomenon. Nevertheless, the well-studied incorporation of the remnants of our architectural heritage plays an important role in every effort for the upgrading of historical centers and settlements and can decisively contribute to the enrichment of the meaning of the town/city and to the enhancement of its physiognomy.  

Society and Techniques. The Choice of the Traditional Cheese-making Evangelos Karamanes

Some aspects of the traditional cheese-making techniques applied in the Koupatsiarika villages of the Grevena region relevant to the making of the "batzio" cheese, are examined in this article. Furthermore, the relation of the stockbreeders' choice of technique to the social organization of production in local and broader level is analyzed. Finally, the modification of these techniques, which is receptive to the pressure of broader economic and social changes, is presented.

Dura Europos. The Earliest Christian Church Despina losif

A house, which had been used as a place of gathering and worship of the first Christians, was discovered in Dura Europos, Syria, in 1931-1932. It was built in the early third century ad as a private residence of a rather wealthy and distinguished citizen. In 232-233 ad it was converted to a “Christian House" and no attempt was made the identity of the god worshipped there to be concealed. In the Early Christian period, before the erection of proper churches, the followers of the new faith used to gather and perform their religious rituals in private residences. The representation of soldiers in a wait drawing of the house, a decoration that belongs to the pre-Christian phase of the building, is quite tempting for a (daring?) proposal as regards the identity of the owner of the place. Thus, we might suppose that he had a career in the Roman army, as the soldiers drawing demonstrates, that he was a Christian, as the sheltering of the Christian community of Dura in his own house indicates, and that the Christian clergy and congregation did not mind to have military figures as their host. Although this scenario may seem imaginary, it can be justified, if it is considered as a reaction against the prevailing theory that Christianity at Dura was a religion of the civilian rather than the military population and that the army was cut off from the community. How ever, this could not be the case. The decoration of the earliest surviving "church" at Dura proves that the Christian and the military world could very well form a unity of common faith.

The Temple of Great Gods on Samothrace seen through the eyes of modern technology Apostolos Mavridis

Samothrace, the island of pious initiates, was an important religious centre in antiquity, renowned throughout the ancient world due to the popularity of the Great Gods that were worshiped there and their mysterious cult. The Temple is an excellent example of the construction of ancient temples in general and was erected in honour of the Great Gods in 325 BC. A work team formed to produce a photorealistic visualization of the entire Temple. Study of the monument was based on the valuable research done by the Institute of Fine Arts at the University of New York and the team managed to achieve its objective with the help of Kyriakos Dimitsas, lecturer at the Demokritos University of Thrace. Great attention was given to the actual representation of the Temple (the scale was on a 1:1 ratio) as well as to the perfect rendering of the texture of materials and the lighting of the temple.

Peter Paul Rubens and Theocritus: Theories About the Bucolic Repertoire Nafsika Litsardopoulou

This article deals with Rubens’s bucolic landscapes in connection with Theocritus bucolic Idylls. First, the relevance of their content and style is presented, which becomes obvious through an attentive reading of the Idylls and a meticulous description of the bucolic paintings. Then, the various art history and literature theories concerning the bucolic repertoire are examined and their relation to Rubens's bucolic creations and to Theocritus bucolic poetry is demonstrated. Finally, an important issue is raised, concerning the relation between the artistic production and its theoretical evaluation and interpretation.

Tradition and Innovation in the Tapestries of Artemis Angela Tamvaki

The first time I met Artemis, in the summer of 1994, she had already settled down on her beloved Tinos. The discovery of her real artistic vocation went quite many years back, her first cycles of creation had by then been completed: "Song of Songs', The Creation", "Man", "Delos". "The Birth of Apollo". "Apollo", 'Arte¬mis", to mention a few. Her passionate involvement with grand "historical" subjects, in which she was putting new life using a dra¬matic narration as well as symbols of eternal truth and human strife, was already apparent Artemis started working on the "Odyssey" cycle in 1990 and completed it in 2000. The idea seemed fascinating and was indicative of a revival of interest in this ancient Greek epic. Artemis is usually weaving on a vertical loom and makes innumerable drawings, sketches and collages as the composition develops. Viscose, one of her favorite materials, gives interesting solutions to problems related with the rendering of light. The light in her tapestries is spiritual, esoteric and stresses the general symbolic content of the subject. The fact that such compositions are abstract does not outshine their prominent narrative qualities. Artemis is a skilful storyteller: not only she invents fascinating new ways to tell old stones, but she also comes up with original, individual interpretations. Her approach is selective and clearly poetic. The year 2000 was marked by the completion of the "Odyssey" cycle and the beginning of her engagement with the second major project, the "Unicorn" series, which was presented in the Epistrofos Exhibition.  

Εκπαιδευτικές σελίδες: Οι αρχαίοι θεοί: Δίας και Ευρώπη Μαρίζα Ντεκάστρο

Τεύχος 93, Δεκέμβριος 2004 No. of pages: 178
Κύριο Θέμα: Αρχαίες ρίζες της χοροθεραπείας στην Ελλάδα και στην Ινδία Λήδα Shantala

Οι ελληνικοί παραδοσιακοί χοροί. Διδασκαλία και καλλιτεχνική έκφραση Λευτέρης Δρανδάκης

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Μουσείο: Η συλλογή φαγεντιανών του Μουσείου Μπενάκη Λένα Κωνσταντέλλου

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Aρχαιομετρικά Nέα Γιάννης Μπασιάκος

Νεκρολογία: Ο Gottfried Gruben στο πάνθεον των αρχαιολόγων Wolfram Hoepfner

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Πληροφορική: Ανταπόκριση από το συνέδριο ICHIM Berlin 04 Κατερίνα Χαρατζοπούλου

Το χρονικό του Τατοΐου Κώστας Μ. Σταματόπουλος

English summaries: Tradition and Modernity in Dance Marica Rombou-Levidi

The article deals with the interpretation of the terms “traditional” and "artistic” dance, which express the "traditional" and "modern" society, respectively. The differences between he two kinds of dance expression are also stressed, which, according to the authors opinion, do not simply constitute varieties of form, but also dissimilarities of content and refer equally to the process of dance creation and dance performance. Furthermore, the social as well as the aesthetic aspects of dance are examined since the are considered to be interrelated. Special reference is made to the more or less hybrid phenomenon of the revival of traditional dance through the ideological-cultural framework and the institutions of modern society. Finally, the problems rising from the coexistence of these dance expressions are discussed aiming at a more elucidating interpretation of dance in our days.

Dance in modern times Katerina Tsekoura

The social and cultural aspect of dance. The revival of traditional dance in modern society. Greek history as a source of inspiration in Greek dance. Eva Sikelianos’ Dance once again at the “heart” of the staging of Tragedy. Apollo and Dionysos, cosmic “principles and dynamics” linked in an unbroken line to the body, to nature, dance and the arts. The sacred element found in the dances of both Greece and India. Dance in folktales as present in joyful events and as a guide for initiation into a world of magic. The choreographers and dancers who influenced dance costumes and sets. The problems faced by the dance profession in Greece. Dance as a heading in eight encyclopedias. Bibliography on dance.

Greek traditional dances. How they are taught and their artistic expression Lefteris Drandakis

A peculiar phenomenon in our day and age is the abundance of dance groups performing Greek traditional dances. It is a feature of modern Greek society which, however, cannot be easily interpreted. The dance group of the Lyceum of Greek Women, is composed of volunteer dancers and is one of the best known artistic groups whose history can be traced back to the early 20th century. Today it is counted among the pioneering dance groups that seek modern forms of artistic expression through research into folk song, other traditional dance groups and Greek folk festivals and ceremonies in general. The Lyceum of Greek Women, being a society with annexes all over the country, teaches Greek dances in a similar way to hundreds of other societies and cultural associations, most of which appeared after the beginning of the 1970ies. Dance groups with a repertory of dances from all over Greece as well as dance companies with members who are mature in age, are active throughout Greece today, aiming at the preservation and enhancement of the purely local repertoire. As a result of this there is a surplus of dance performances, since almost anyone can stage them, of a doubtful quality. The teachers of dance at the various associations are mainly graduates of the Academy of Gymnastics, specialising in Greek dances. There also exists another kind of teacher, older experienced dancers, ex-members of voluntary or semi-professional dance groups in the country. Cultural associations today exist, not only in urban centres, but also in small villages where excellent teachers of traditional dances can be found. Such teachers promote local music and dance repertoire, and at the same time teach their students that Greek dance is not only a theatrical performance but a lively part of Greek reality and a way of expressing oneself in the modern world.

An approach to the Greek history of dance Maria Tsoutsoura

The creation or even the forming of a plan of a substantial history of dance meets with considerable obstacles due to the peculiarities of Greek history. If one is to read published monographs on 20th century trends in Greek dance, one sees that ballet appeared almost illicitly in the first decades of the century and developed gradually. One also reads of the romantic adulation of ancient Greece in the Delphic Festivals (1927, 1930). These Festivals made artistic dance socially acceptable. Then dance became established through eurythmics and its contribution to ancient drama “orchesis” which brought an altogether new interpretation to the classical ideal. In the second half of the 20th century, an attempt was made for artistic dance in Greece to keep pace with Western trends, in relation with Greek morals and aesthetic. It thus appears that classical education in Greece stands diametrically opposed to a classical education in dance. However, some of the most original dance performances in Greece were achieved when Greek artists dared to integrate, through modern means, inspirations coming from a Greek, historical past.

Choreography in the Ancient Drama: The Contribution of Eve Palmer-Sikelianos Eleni Fessa-Emmanuel

The article deals with the contribution of Eve Palmer – Sikelianos to the Choreography of the ancient drama by focussing on two issues. First, the historic significance of Eve’s innovation regarding the stage approach to chorus in two Aeschylean tragedies, Prometheus Bound and the Suppliants, which were presented in the ancient Theatre of Delphi in the framework of the Delphic Festival of 1927 and 1930. Second the fertile influence of Eve on the pioneers of Greek choreography and ancient drama, the gifted disciples of the great paedagogist Koula Pratsika coryphaia of the chorus in the first Delphic Festival that is Loukia Kokkinioti-Sakellariou, Rallou Manou, Aghapi Evangelidou, Maria Diamantidou, Maria Horse, Maria Kyrighou. They have laid the foundations of the two Greek schools of choreography of ancient drama, the Neo-classical school of the National Theatre and the anti-academic school of the Karolos Koun’s Theatre of Art. The specific reference and comments are made on the following topics the cultural framework of the Neo-romantic enterprise of the American lady lover of ancient Greece an its relation with the utopian Delphic idea of her husband, the poet Angelos Sikelianos, the artistic genius and the infectious passion of Eve and her pioneering effort to elevate the signing and dancing chorus to the position of the protagonist of the performance Prometheus Bound in the first Delphic Festival (1927), the stage handling of the chorus in the performance of Prometheus and the Suppliants staged in the framework of the second Delphic Festival (19130). Finally, the basic shortcomings as well as the achievements of Eve’s approach to the role of chorus in the ancient drama are pinpointed. Her significant contribution can be better appreciated if we bear in mind that she was the first to undertake the task to re-established chorus, the “heart” of ancient Greek tragedy as a dancing playing and signing ensemble.

Apollo and Dionysus: the Dancing Spirit Emilia Bouriti

The article refers to a postgraduate research program, carried out: a. in Great Britain (University of Brighton, b. in Greece (Delphi museum and archaeological site, on Siphnos island – Chrysopigi district and Folk Art Museum, Athens – Museum of Cycladic Art and Superior School of Fine Arts, Library) and c. in Czechia (Prague – the Dancan Dance Center). In this research Apollo and Dionysus are approached as universal principles and their characteristics related to body and nature, dance and the representation arts. The research ended up with the presentation of an installation and video work and its main conclusions were: Apollo: He is the god of light and proportion. The spinal column is his point of connection with the body, stretching and raising are his kinesiologic elements. Dionysus: He is the earth god, the spirit of the species. The abdominal area is his point of connection with the body, twisting, curving and circular movement are his kinesiologic elements. In the art of sculpture, the Cycladic idols can be regarded as examples of the Apollonian pose and movement, while the Boeotian idols can serve as examples of the Dionysian one. The artist has to go through a process of catharsis and purification in order to become in tune with the universal principles, the Apollonian and the Dionysian ones, and to be able to express them artistically.  

The Ancient Roots of Dance-therapy in Greece and India Lida Shantala

Ancient Greeks and Indians equally honored and enjoyed dance in similar ways. They believed that dance had a divine origin. it was a gift from gods to humans and at the same time a common way of communication. In Greek and Hindu art and literature all the deities and the supernatural beings are very often represented dancing, therefore it is not strange that both civilizations have regarded gods as the first teachers of dance. Dance was an Indispensable component of the rituals of the ancient Greek mysteries and was accompanying every invitation rite. As a result, the artistic rite creates the path, opens the inner human world and is in itself transmuted to a transition, by revealing the inner dimension of the spiritual existence. Dance (χορός) according to Plato, derives from the word joy (χαρά) and springs from the desire of the young people to express sentiments, especially sentiments of joy, through the movement of their bodies. He also considers dance as the evolution of the mimicry of the words through gesticulation. The ancient Greek word orchesis had a broader meaning than the word dance has today and it was closer in meaning to the Sanskritic word Natya that signifies rhythmic movements of every kind, of hands, feet, eyes and of the entire body in general. So much for the ancient Greeks as much for the lndians art possesses great healing abilities, since it can purify both the artist and his audience. It is considered to be spiritual path, a shantana, of self-knowledge and self-consciousness that leads to the Eternal, the Immovable, the Shapeless and, nevertheless, the Moving God the sacred art of dancinq has died in Greece, but it continues to exist in India, where it is transmitted from teacher to discipline until today.  

Dance in the Folk Fairy-tale Vassia Ignatiou-Karamanoli

Dance is introduced in the folk fairy-tale sometimes in order to describe the social life of a community, as the consequence of a social cause, and sometimes in order to initiate an audience to the realm of magic and in order a smooth social integration to be achieved. The fairy- tale utilizes dance so as to transmit to its audience the social representation of the two sexes, the procedure of choosing a sex partner and the delegalization of the secular authority, which can be achieved through a carnival Anschauung of the structure of society.

Stage Settings and Costumes: Their Role in the Classical Ballet and Modern Dance Katerina Kambanelli

Dance over the centuries has gained a position equal to the other top forms of art, since it has covered the human need for expression and has played a religious, ritual role among the primitive and ancient people.In this framework, the integration of stage settings and costumes in dance has passed various phases. The stage settings, from decorative elements - signifying place and time- became functional and practical and components, suggestive of a certain ambiance. The costumes, from accurate conveyors of an epoch ended up to a plain minimalism, moving and dancing along with the performer. In the twentieth century, the role of stage settings and costumes in modern dance is to form the fertile surroundings and to offer creative inspiration to the choreographer and dancer in their performance. Marie Sallé, Marie Medina, Maria Tagliori, Isadora Duncan, Serge Diaghilev, Alvin Nikolai, Luis Falco, Jerome Robins, Maurice Béjart, the Momix are some of the choreographers and dancers who contributed their important work and daring imagination to the evolution of dance stage settings and costumers and guided the setting and costume design to their present achievements.  

Institutions and Bodies of Modern Dance: A Malfunctioning System Christina Polychroniadou

A series of institutions and bodies that produce and employ the human power of dance set up the contemporary dance reality in Greece. Dancers, teachers of dance and choreographers graduate from schools that offer the basic knowledge of the field and promise them the career they desire. However, this system presents malfunctions In absorbing the young people, since, as soon as they graduate full of dreams, they face the hard reality of unemployment, because the opportunities for a professional career are extremely limited. An art bound by the gears of bureaucracy, the shortage of substantial financial support and the lack of confidence on the part of the governmental bodies, has to find ways to release Itself from a long past of indifference. The future actions and plans of the private or public sector should take into consideration: the demand for creation of new institutions and bodies that will function in parallel with the existing ones that enjoy international recognition: the decentralization of dance bodies and the participation of more public bodies, besides the Ministry of Culture, in the financial assistance to dance: the creation of additional jobs and opportunities for the absorption of the unemployed professionals; the possibility for a broader, of a university level education, so that dance studies to obtain a better background than simple practice. And above all, good humor and fellow -feeling from and to the colleagues dance professionals, a decisive factor for every fruitful creation.  

The bibliography of dance Irene Loutzaki

The bibliography cited in this article exclusively comprises monographs on dance. Written by Greek and foreign authors they deal with the different kinds of dance that prevail in Greece and are taught in the numerous schools for professional and amateur dancers, in dance associations and in the various relevant university departments. Also included are works that have been translated into Greek and refer more generally to the question of dance. The bibliography covers the period from 1835 to the present day, when dance has been promoted to an art form important to culture and education and has become an interesting subject of study.

Contribution to the Study of Dance Bibliography: the School Curriculum Irene Loutzaki

In the field 0f Greek Lexicography, where the words derive the one from the other and the senses slide from one meaning to another, the encyclopaedia, as source of knowledge, IS enhanced into an organic part of the historic course of the term "dance". The information sources present, however, a great dissemination as regards both time and objectives. Thus, we have tried to describe the meaning 0f "dance", on an index based research in eight selected Greek encyclopaedias that span from 1898 to the present day, in order to: a find out 'the way in which the encyclopaedists approach and interpret the term "dance", and how they transmute it, and b. investigate the degree of convergence/divergence among the recommended works. it should be noted that for the better understanding of the entries studied so far, which refer to actual situations, It is necessary to know when and by whom they have been written. The remark s, descriptions and reasoning of the compilers can, undoubtedly, be evaluated, if we consider the actual time of their research and writing. In our case it covers the period of the first generation of encyclopaedias, that is the years between 1898 and 1950 as well as the critical phase of the second generation, spanning from the middle of 1964 to 1994 and leading to the new era of dance.

The Month of the Ancient Marathon Runner Christos Dionyssopoulos

The identification of the month of the year 490 B.C., in which the ancient Marathon runner "flied" to bring the victorious message to Athens, is directly connected with the precise dating of he Marathon battle. Calculating on the basis of the Spartan calendar which commenced on the first new moon after the autumnal equinox, and speculating that the battle was conducted in the month of Karneios as well as the Spartan year 491/490 Included an inserted month, we find out that Karneios, which regularly is the eleventh month of the Spartan calendar, has become, owing to the insertion, the twelfth month. Therefore, it started on 27 August and not on 26 July, as Professor D.W. Olson and his team have proposed. As regards the Attic calendar, the summer solstice of the year 490 B.C. is astronomically observed at 04.16 hours of 29 June and the new moon of the month at 02.39 hours of 27 June. However, this moon was observable at 21:45 hours of 29 June. Therefore, this date follows the summer solstice and must be identified with the first moon of the Attic year 90/489 and not to the month Meageitnion, the second month of the Attic calendar, begins on 28 July, and Boedromion, he third month, on 27 August, 490 B.C. As a result, the month Karnelos of the Spartan calendar corresponds to the month Boedromion of the Attic year 490/489 and not to the month Metageitnion as Professor A. Boeckh has suggested. Thus, according to the aforementioned calculations, we propose the following dating: Karn./Boed. Sept. 490 B.C. 14 9/10 full moon 15 10/11 end of Karneian Festival 16 11/12 departure of the Lacedaemonians from Sparta 7 12/13 Marathon battle, dispatching of messenger to Athens 18 13/14 arrival of Lacedaemonians to Athens Conclusively, according to both the Attic and the Spartan calendars, the ancient Marathon runner run in September of 490 B.C.  

The Faience Collection of the Benaki Museum Lena Konstantellou

The Faience Collection of the Benaki Museum in Athens comprises about 220 items-shreds, tiles, figurines, pendants etc. These objects were brought in Egypt and were donated to the museum by Loukas Benakis mainly between the years 1959 and 1977. Faience, a fine variety of highly colored pottery, appears primarily in Egypt (in the Pre-dynastic period, 4000-3100 B.C.) and is widely used during the Pharaonic, Hellenistic and Roman era until the Arabic invasion (640 ad). The pottery represents the main group of the collection and includes intact and fragmentary vases that have a relief, incised or embossed decoration; two oenochoai shreds from the Ptolemaic period and a fragment showing a satyr’s head in relief also belong to this category. Certain pieces are inscribed with hieroglyphics, while for most of them the color, the rendering of the relief, low and high, as well as the survival of Egyptian motives, such as the lotus flower, rosettes or iconographic subjects, such as the elephant and the Griffith, serve as the main criteria for their dating. The self-proclamation of Ptolemy, the satrap of Persia, as King of Egypt in 305 B.C., signals a new era for the Nilotic country, during which the crucial staff positions of the kingdom are occupied by Greeks and along with the Greek deities, who have been introduced to Egypt since the 7th century B.C., the Egyptian goods are worshipped.

Nyssa by River Meander Thanos Papathanassopoulos

The author of the article considers the foundation of a Greek Archaeological School in Turkey more than necessary, since its objective can be the research of the extant monuments of the ancient Greek civilization in this country. In addition, he refers briefly to the historical and archaeological interest that Nyssa presents being the only one among the numerous ancient Greek towns of Asia Minor that was excavated during the years 1921-1922 by the Greek archaeologist K. Kourouniotis. The agora, the gymnasium, the theatre and the aqueduct of Nyssa give a complete picture of the major components of the ancient Greek polis. If to these edifices we add the thermae, the amphitheatre and the library that decorated the city during the Roman period, then we can conceive the significance and vigor Nyssa once had.

An Aquatic Representation on a Vase Fragment in the Harry Tzalas Collection Menelaos Christopoulos

The article deals with a vase fragment, dating from the late 1st to the early 2nd century ad, in the Harry Tzalas Collection. It is decorated with a ship and a figure bearing the characteristic features of the mythical Skylla, a scene obviously representing the relevant episode from Ulysses’ adventures narrated in the Odyssey. The study of the embellishment technique (terra sigillata), the popularity of the SkylIa theme in relief pottery decoration and in sculpture from the 6th century B.C. to the 2nd century ad, as well as the artistic and literary trends of the period suggest that the choice of he subject decorating the vase, to which this fragment belongs, has been influenced by the maritime adventures encountered in many works of Greek literature, which follow the stream of literary classicism that prevails during he Second Sophistic (1st- 3rd century ad).  

Historical and Numismatic Notes from the Ancient Modon. Pedasos, Mothone or Methone? Panayotis Foutakis

Although archaeological evidence has not yet been found which could have corroborated Strabo’s and Pausanias’ statements that Modon is the Homeric town of Pedasos, there are certain historical events that define Modon as a fortified post In antiquity. Furthermore, the way ancient historians and chroniclers refer to this town proves that the official name of the city during the Classical, Hellenistic and Roman era, until the 2nd century ad was Methone. This article establishes this historical evidence, presents a list of ancient coins of Modon, presently scattered in various collections, and offers a new argument regarding the correct name of he place. The identity of Modon is therefore brought up in a more authentic way. Even if such an argument about remote times could be heard as distant echo, it can hopefully come into music.    

Public Land: A Factor for the Location of Public Buildings in Ottonian Athens Dionysios Roubien

Immediately after the transfer of the Greek capital to Athens, the government declared its intention of defining the location of public buildings and of starting their erection as soon as possible. However, it soon became apparent that its plan stumbled over the almost complete absence of public land in Athens and the lack of financial resources for purchasing the necessary land, the price of which skyrocketed when the city became the capital of the modern Greek state. Thus, the basic source of land in Athens became the donations as well as the expropriations in arbitrarily low prices. Nevertheless, the financial weakness of the state in combination with the lack of organization resulted to the accumulation, even for decades, of numerous applications for indemnity, submitted by the affected landowners. In order this unhappy, complex situation to be handled, an attempt was made the use of private land to be avoided. The few public buildings, which had to be erected by the government immediately after its arrival in the new capital, should be built anywhere where public ground existed or could be bought in the lowest possible price. This information that public land in the new city was almost non-existent may explain the confinement of the first public buildings in the old sector of Athens. Later, however, the high prices of the central plots played a decisive role in the gradual transfer of the public buildings away from the center. As a result, none of the interiors concerning the rational and uniform planning of the location of public buildings, as they were expressed in every town plan, was materialized. In addition, the lack of financial resources led to the shrinkage of the town plan, through the reduction of the width of streets and public areas as well as of grounds to be excavated, in order the cost of indemnities to be decreased. In a state with limited potentials, such as Greece, the financial factor had the final word.

Ten Steps for the adoption of a Monument Stavros Grosdos

The program “The School adopts a Monument” was implemented in various cities of the European Union. It is addressed to he pupils of Primary School and Its main aim is to focus the Interest and awareness of local communities on the issue of the protection of cultural heritage. The children “take under their protection” a near-by monument, by undertaking its thorough study, and make it known to their broader local community. The activities relevant to the adoption of a monument are developed in ten phases and are expanded in the school curriculum, by introducing subjects such as Modern Greek Language, History and Art.

Issues of Mythology and Methodology on the Occasion of a Myth and an Exhibition Dimitra Mitta

On the occasion of the Hercules’ Exhibition, housed in the Goulandris Museum of Natural History (February 2004-June 2005), the issue is probed whether a reliable method of approaching myths exists. If we consider the time necessary for the formation of a myth as well as the myth differentiations occurring In the sources of ancient Greek literature, then we can suggest the following: the approach to myths, particularly to these that have survived and have inspired various artistic expressions until to day, should be made according to the conditions prevailing in the time of their creation or recreation; It must also reveal the successive phases of the formation of myths as well as the reasons for their occasional differentiation. This theoretical issue, like others, such as the model for the formation of myth versions, can be demonstrated, for example, through the myth of Hercules in whose personality events of centuries are compressed. We also attempt to present a brief "prehistory” of the Olympic Games until their final formation. Thus, the role of he Idaean and the Argeian Hercules and of the rest “founders" of he Games is elucidated and the religious and political differences among the ancient tribes who have related their history with the region of Olympia, the birthplace of the Olympic Games, and the Olympia, the panhellenic games, are underlined.  

The New Municipal Art Gallery of Karditsa Magda Koumbarellou, Foteini Lekka, Dimitra Lazidou

The Municipal Art Gallery of Karditsa, founded in 1993, comprises works of mainly Karditsa-born painters, among whom two personalities of the generation of the 1930s prevail: Dimitris Gioldasis (1897-1993) and Giorgos Valtadoros (1897-1930). The enrichment of its collections in recent years was oriented towards acquiring modern works, regardless of the artist’ origin, and coincided with donations of similar philosophy. A priority of equal importance to the renovation of the style of the building was the safeguarding of the extending museum treasures through restoration. The most difficult phase of the restoration has to do with the Gioldasis’ Collection, since many works of this group had a painting underlayer of interior quality and had been kept in appropriate conditions until their donation to the Art Gallery. The restoration work performed was both preventive – controlled conditions in the new storage rooms – and remedial –lining and overall aesthetic rehabilitation of the paintings, in accordance with the painting materials already used. The housing of the Municipal Art Gallery in its new building in the summer of 2000 brought to the limelight a series of problems created so much by the physiognomy of a completed building and the limitations it imposed, as much by the museological needs dictated by the collections. A group of experts has decisively contributed to the successful handing of both the artistic material and the space function, in relation to the local community and the presumptive visitors of the Art Gallery.

Εκπαιδευτικές σελίδες: Οι αρχαίοι θεοί: Ο Δίας και η Λήδα Μαρίζα Ντεκάστρο